Chapter 7 The American Revolution: (1775 1783) The
Chapter 7 The American Revolution: (1775 1783) The Early Years of the War: American were divided when it came to the war 20 to 30 percent of Americans were Loyalists, 40 to 45 percent were Patriots, and the rest were neutral not favoring any side The American people were torn from north to south about the war Some Quakers were Loyalist, but are pacifists opposed to all violence African Americans were offered their freedom if they joined the British forces, but in the North nearly 5,000 African Americans
were in the Continental Army, but some feared that giving them arms would lead to slave revolts Native Americans also sided with both America and British Preparing for War: The new nations army was formed from state militia, who were untrained and undisciplined volunteers, who were not prepared for a long war Washingtons main goal was to keep the Revolution going, winning what they could no matter how small the battle, but always trying to avoid a crushing defeat In the beginning, Congress asked men to enlist for a year, then they could go home, giving Washington 17,000 men Supplies were lacking as well: blankets, shoes, food, and guns and ammunition
Many women followed their husbands into the war, helping with the cooking, laundry, were nurses, but most stayed to work the farm or business while their husbands were away Preparing for War: British troops faced similar struggles, though their army was experienced and professional Many British officer refused to fight the Americans Britain hired mercenaries a professional soldier hired to fight for a foreign country, called Hessians,
that were mainly from German War in the Middle States: Washington had the British retreat from Boston, but knew they would head to New York The British goal was to occupy every costal city to land troops and keep supply chains open In July, General William Howe arrived in New York with a large army, including some 9,000 Hessian mercenaries Washington had to retreat through New Jersey into Pennsylvania
War in the Middle States: In late December, 1776, Washingtons troops rowed across the Delaware River into New Jersey The Americans captured or killed more than 900 Hessians and gained needed supplies 8 days later they won at Princeton, before setting up camp for the winter in Morristown, New Jersey Britains Northern Strategy: The British were pursuing a strategy an overall plan of action, by seizing the Hudson River Valley, they believed the New England states were the cause of the rebellion and cutting them off from the rest would
stop the war General John Burgoyne would lead a force south from Canada Lt. Colonel Barry St. Leger would come down the Mohawk Valley General William Howe would follow the Hudson north from New York City Burgoyne left Canada in 1777, captured fort Ticonderoga and continued south Burgoyne soon learned that he was fighting not an army, but entire people, as trees were cut to slow progress, crops were burned, cattle drove off, leaving not food or supplies for him to use Britains Strategy Unravels: Nearing the rendezvous meeting place, with St. Leger and Howe in Albany
Getting a message that Howe was trying to take Philadelphia, Howe would not be coming north Washington learning of Howes intentions headed to Philadelphia, losing a battle at Brandywine, again Washington attacked Howe at Germantown, and again losing Burgoyne received that St. Leger was having his own troubles, at fort Stanwix, with Iroquois, and Mohawk leader Joseph Brant, Thayendanegea, Brant was promised that the British would protect his peoples lands American General Benedict Arnold led an army up the Mohawk River to chase the British away from fort Stanwix, Arnold spread rumors that they had captured a large group of Loyalists and Iroquois, and that he had a large army It work as the British retreated to fort Oswego, now Burgoyne was on his own Saratoga: A Turning Point:
Running low on supplies, Burgoyne sent raiding parties into Vermont, but were defeated Despite these setbacks, Burgoyne moved south General Horatio Gates blocked Burgoyne on a ridge called Bemis Heights, near Saratoga, New York There Tadeusz Kosciusko help the Patriots build fortifications of earthen walls Burgoyne attacked in September, Benedict Arnold lad an attack the British Despite heavy casualties the British, but retreated in October to a former camp at Saratoga The Continental Army surrounded Burgoyne and fired on them day and night
until he surrendered, the series of events that led up to the surrender are know as the Battles of Saratoga A huge victory for the Americans, from keeping the British from dividing the states It also showed Europeans that American might win their freedom Formal Battle Tactics: The War Expands: The French still sore over losing the French Indian War, secretly gave aid to the Americans, not becoming an ally a group that helps another to achieve a common goal, until the American's could prove that they could win a conventional battle against the British forces After the victory of Saratoga, the French signed 2 treated with the United States, promising badly needed funds, supplies, and troops to America
The Spanish also help by capturing British strongholds of Natchez and Baton Rouge in the lower Mississippi Valley With this happening the British were spread thin, having to fight on some many fronts instead of just one Marquis de Lafayette a 19 year old French aristocrat wanted a military career, and volunteered to serve under Washington He persuaded the king of France to send 6,000 troops to America Winter at Valley Forge: Washington after defeat at Philadelphia, camped a Valley Forge Many men only had blankets, not shoes, and no supplies
A quarter of Washingtons men died from malnutrition, exposure, or diseases such as smallpox and typhoid fever Private citizen help the troops from time to time, bringing clothes and much needed food Under circumstances some soldier would desert or leave the military without permission Baron von Steuben, helped train the troops at Valley Forge, teaching them to handle weapons properly and showed them how to fight the formal battles favored by the British In 1775, Daniel Boone helped build the Wilderness Road a trail into
Kentucky Kentucky was claimed by Virginia, George Rogers Clark persuaded Virginias governor to capture British outpost on the Western Frontier In May, 1778, Clark led a group to Kaskaskia, a British fort guarding the Mississippi River, and captured it without a fight Determined to take fort Sackville, again, from Henry Hamilton, he attacked in February 1779 Hamilton not expecting an attack because the woods were flooded
Clark threatened the British by killing some Indian allies in plain sight Threatened the British surrendered Frontier Fighting: War on the Waves: By 1777, Britain had over 200 warships off the coast of America, which allowed Britain to control the Atlantic trade routes and markets The American navy was small and weak, Congress encouraged American privateers privately owned ships granted permission to attack enemy merchant ships, to attach British ships America commissioned more than 1,000 privateers, capturing hundreds of merchants ship, causing them to ask their government to end the war John Paul Jones Continental Navy officer, sailed to Britain and attacked
British ships along the coast of Britain In 1779, Jones ship, the Bonhomme Richard, closed in on a British convoy, the British captain sure of a victory demanded Jones surrender, Jones relied I have not yet begun to fight After a 3 and a half battle Jones won, but the Bonhomme was so damaged that they had to sail away in the Serapis The Path to Victory: After 3 years of fighting in the north, the British were still no closer to winning the war, even after taking important costal cities, they were run to thin to control the countryside In 1778, British strategy changed and decided to move south where there
were more Loyalist and thousands of slaves, who if joined were expecting freedom Savannah and Charles Town Fall: In 1778, the British captured the port of Savannah, Georgia, and conquered most of Georgia In 1780, General Henry Clinton landed in South Carolina, and trapped American forces in Charles Town, the largest southern city The Battle of Charles Town ended when the city surrendered, the worst American defeat of the war, because it lost almost all of its southern army General Horatio Gates, fresh off his victory at Saratoga, was to head south and form an army to challenge British general Lord Cornwallis
In 1780, Gates ran into British troops outside Camden, untrained and tired militia fled as soon as fighting began, Gates term as head of an army had ended Francis Marion called the Swamp Fox lead rebel guerrilla forces, attacking messengers, supply lines, and troops throughout the south General Greene Take Charge: After Gates defeat at Camden, Washington put Nathanael Greene in charge of the southern army In 1781, Greene sent part of his army to confront Cornwallis in a formal linear battle, the Americans won at Cowpens Now Cornwallis pursued Greene up into North Carolina, Greene had a strategy to let the British wear themselves out, as Greenes men knew the landscape When they did fight, they made sure the British suffered heavy losses
After the Battle of Guilford Court House, Cornwallis had to retreat to Wilmington, and realized that there were more active Patriots than Loyalists, and their strategy failed The End of the War: Frustrated with setbacks in the Carolinas, Cornwallis moved north without orders to set up base in Yorktown, from there he could receive supplies from New York This gave Washington the opportunity to set a trap, Washington joined forces with General Jean Rochambeaus French forces and headed south A large French fleet arrived and blocked British supplies, preventing the British from leaving Yorktown The Battle of Yorktown had begun, the British tried encircling the town with redoubts small forts, to keep
the Americans artillery at a distance As American troops captured each redoubt, it just brought their artillery closer and closer, turning Yorktown to rubble In October, 1781, Cornwallis surrendered, with about 8,000 troops under his control This would be the last major battle of the war Why the Americans Won: Despite many obstacles: untrained forces, soldiers that served limited time, lack of proper food, weapons, and supplies the Americans still won The British were not prepared to fight a popular war Wars in Europe people not enlisted, fled or bid before advancing forces
came, but they soon found out that larger parts of the population were actively involved In late 1783, the last British ships and troops left New York City The Legacy of the War: 8 years of fighting took a toll on Americans, an estimates 25,700 Americans died, 1,400 remained missing, over 8,200 wounded British losses suffered estimated about 10,000 Many soldier were never paid or paid little, so the government gave them land certificates for land in the west The nations debt of about $27
million, would prove difficult to repay Between 60,000 and 100,000 Loyalists left during and after the war And left bitter memories for all Patriots and Loyalist like The Legacy of the War Cont: In 1780, Benedict Arnold, betrayed his country by handing over an American fort to the British, and throughout history his name has meant traitor 1783, in September, the Treaty of Paris which ended the Revolutionary War, was signed and the terms follow: The United States were independent
Boundaries would be from the Mississippi River west, Canada on the north, and Spanish Florida on the south Rights to fish off the Canadas Atlantic coast, near Newfoundland and Nova Scotia Each side would repay debts it owed the other The British would return any enslaved persons they had captured Congress would recommend that the states return any property they had seized from Loyalists Boundary Disputes: The Treaty of Paris led to boundary disputes disagreements, with Spain who claim the Mississippi River for
100 miles north of the Gulf of Mexico British refused to give up outpost bases, in the Great Lakes area, such as fort Detroit And the boundaries gave little though or concern to the Native American interest Creating a New Nation: By 1777, all the former colonies had adopted written constitutions The Continental Congress had drafted a plan: The Articles of Confederation, these articles gave very little power to the central government besides the ability to wage war and sign treaties Slavery was also changing in some parts, Vermont outlawed slavery, which
Pennsylvania's law was to gradually free them Elizabeth Freeman, sued for her freedom in Massachusetts and won, and eventually ended slavery in Massachusetts In Philadelphia, Richard Allen helped start the Free African Society, a nondenominational group that encouraged people to help each other In 1777, Thomas Jefferson proposed his Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, he claimed that people have a natural right to freedom of opinion including religious opinion, which would later become the basis for the religious rights guaranteed by the Bill of Rights in the Constitution
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