Antibody Production The blood contains two types of

Antibody Production The blood contains two types of

Antibody Production The blood contains two types of white blood cell or leukocyte Phagocytes ingest bacteria by endocytosis Lymphocytes produce antibodies Antibodies Antibodies are proteins that recognise and

bind to specific antigens Antigens are foreign substances that stimulate the production of antibodies Many of the molecules on the surface of viruses and bacteria are antigens Antibodies are specific they usually bind to only one specific antigen. Antibodies Antigen

Microbe Production of Antibodies by Lymphocytes A lymphocyte can produce only one type of antibody so a huge number of different types are needed Each lymphocyte has some of its antibody on its surface The antigens of a pathogen bind to the antibodies

in the surface membrane of a lymphocyte This activates the lymphocyte. The active lymphocyte divides by mitosis to produce a clone of many identical cells MITOSIS The clone of cells starts to produce large quantities of the same

antibody the same antibody needed to defend against the pathogen! Most microbes have more than one antigen on their surface, so they stimulate more than one type of lymphocyte resulting in the production

of many different antibodies. These are called polyclonal antibodies. Antibody Production: The Primary Response Step 1: Antigen Presentation Antigen Macrophage Macrophages take in antigen

by endocytosis The macrophage processes the antigen and attaches it to a membrane protein called a MHC protein The MHC protein is moved to the cell surface membrane by exocytosis so that the antigen is displayed on its surface.

MHC protein Step 2: Activation of Helper T-cell Helper T-cells have receptors on their cell surface membranes which can bind to antigens presented by macrophages. receptor Helper T-cell

Helper T-cell binds to macrophage presenting the antigen Macrophage sends a signal to activate the helper T-cell Step 3: Activation of B-lymphocytes B-cells have antibodies in their cell surface membranes Antigens bind to the antibodies in the surface membranes of B-cells

Antigen Inactive B-cell Antibody An activated helper T-cell with receptors for the same antigen binds to the B-cell SIGNAL

The helper T-cell sends a signal to the B-cell, activating the B-cell. Step 4: Proliferation The activated B-cell starts to divide by mitosis to form a clone of plasma cells. Plasma cells are activated B-cells with a very extensive network of rough endoplasmic reticulum. Plasma cells synthesis large

amounts of antibody, which they excrete by exocytosis. The Secondary Response: Memory Cells If an antigen invades your body a second time, a much faster response occurs which produces much larger quantity of the required antibody. When activated B-cells are dividing during the primary response, some cells stop dividing and secreting antibody and become memory cells. Large numbers of memory cells remain in the

body for a long time they are capable of producing large amounts of antibody very quickly when stimulated. Antigen Antigen Activate B-cell

Clone Memory Cell Activate Helper T-cell Antibody Production:

Summary Plasma Cell Macrophage Antibodies

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