PowerPoint-Präsentation

PowerPoint-Präsentation

Writing and Speaking Written and Oral Presentations Writing Papers and Giving Talks Part of the Block Course Working Techniques in the Frame of the International Masters Program for Informatics Johannes Kepler University, Campus Hagenberg, Austria September 2008 Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008 1 Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008: No parts of this file may be copied or stored without written permission. Storing and printed granted for the students of the International

Masters Program in Informatics, JKU, Campus Hagenberg, September 2008 under the condition that the file is kept unchanged and complete including this copyright note. Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008 2 Contents: The Role of Written and Oral Presentations The Parameters on Which Presentations Depend Structure of Written and Oral Presentations Technicalities of Written and Oral Presentations Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008

3 The Role of Written and Oral Presentations Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008 4 Situations for Presentations: Examples a seminar paper with talk an interview at a company product presentation at a costumer teaching users of a software system explaining your parents what you are doing a masters thesis

a paper for a journal a paper for a conference with talk writing a proposal for a fellowship writing a project proposal meeting a politician a radio interview writing a press release talk to yourself Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008 5 Lots of Work

Little Work Presentation Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008 6 Reading (listening) should be less work than re-invention. Good work is lost by bad presentation. Bad presentation is also bad for the author: The readers will prefer to re-invent rather than to read (or to listen to others). Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008

7 The Golden Rule for Presentations: Spend your time as an author for saving the time of the reader! Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008 8 The Myth on Mathematical Intelligence: He has got the right idea but he is just not able to express it. Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008

9 Contents: The Role of Written and Oral Presentations The Parameters on Which Presentations Depend Structure of Written and Oral Presentations Technicalities Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008 10 The Parameters on which Presentations Depend A Common Misunderstanding:

A topic The presentation oral / written Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008 11 Rather: A Topic

The addressees The presentation Chosen media Size constraints Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008 12 Also: The Process of Presentation is a Spiral A

topic Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008 The presentation 13 Also: The Presentation Spiral is the Crucial Method of Research A topic Ideas do not come from Kami but from Kami Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008

14 Some Consequences: Never give the same talk twice! Dont present a paper by presenting the paper! Much of your writing is only for yourself. Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008 15

Rather: A topic The addressees Chosen media Size constraints - contents (the topic) - goals

- point of emphasis - profession - training - motivation - age - relationship - no media - paper - blackboard - slides - interactive media The presentation - space

- time Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008 16 Some Consequences: Learn to express one content for many different addressees using arbitrary media under arbitrary constraints Force yourself to adjust to the addressee, dont force the addressee to adjust to you.

Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008 17 Goals: Goal /= topic Same topic, different goals different presentation !

Goals should be operational. Clear goals are the best motivation for the addressees. Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008 18 An operational specification of a goal: Describes the operation the reader / listener should be able to perform after reading / hearing the presentation.

Non-operational: The reader should understand. Of course, all this has to be taken cum grano salis !! Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008 19 Example: Paper by B. Buchberger, Towards the Automated Synthesis of a Grbner Bases Algorithm

The topic is clear. However, many different operational goals possible: The reader should be able to explain the main idea in examples write a tutorial to develop all details of the algorithm so that he can program it write a program specification to fill in all the details of the proof write a mathematical foundations paper to use the program and apply it as a black box write a users manual to change the program write a documentation Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008

20 Exercise: What are (should / could be) the operational goals behind Buchbergers paper? Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008 21 The point(s) of emphasis: One or very few points of emphasis.

Should be clear to the author, should be clear to the addressee. Napoleon: Only chase one rabbit at a time! Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008 22 Exercise: What is (should / could be) the point of emphasis in Buchbergers paper? Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008

23 Contents: The Role of Written and Oral Presentations The Parameters on Which Presentations Depend Structure of Written and Oral Presentations Technicalities of Written and Oral Presentations Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008 24 The Structure of Presentations Some structural considerations are common to oral and written presentations (talks and papers). Some other structural considerations depend on the media

used. Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008 25 Three psychologic facts behind the art of presentation: - Good motivation facilitates understanding. - Well associated contents can more easily be kept in brain.

- Consecutive learning blocks may disturb each other. As a consequence, the following presentation curve is fundamental. Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008 26 Motivation Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008 Presentation Association

27 The most natural way of presenting mathematics / informatics: Problem Beyond the capabilities of addressee ! Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008 Solution Method Solution Now within the capabilities

of addressee! 28 For many mathematical papers and talks, a well chosen example can / should be the center of the paper. The basic rule for good examples: - as simple as possible - as complicated as necessary. This rule also applies to everything else in mathematics: drawings, definitions, proofs, algorithms, Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008 29

Set (operational) goal Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008 Work hard Enjoy 30 The presentation curve is a fractal: - an entire study - an entire course - a lecture - part of a lecture

Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008 31 Dont do this: Why not? Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008 32 Another rule for presentations: The complete contents should be presented in a couple of rounds of increasing detail.

in the title in the abstract in the introduction in the technical part for the user in the technical part for the developer (in the conclusions for those who have read the paper) Note: the addressee changes in the different parts of a paper! Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008 33 A typical structure of papers:

Title Author, affiliation, bibliographic data Abstract Introduction / literature review Technical part for the users Technical part for the developers

Conclusion References Appendices Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008 34 Title: A good structure: according to problem type, data type, method type.

Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008 35 problem types SOLUTION OF BOOLEAN EQUATIONS BY ELIMINATION Mathematics as a 3-D space method types

EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BOOLEAN ALGEBRAS Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008 data types 36 Author, Affiliation, Bibliographic Information: Should enable the reader to get in contact with the author.

Should enable the reader to cite the paper or to search for citations. Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008 37 Abstract: Note that the addressees are readers who do not have the paper! Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008 38

Introduction / Literature Review: The place for motivation! The place for the main example! The place that convinces the referees about

scope clarity importance difficulty (non-triviality) originality (difference to other work, statement of originality) completeness of literature survey presentation The place for reading instructions

Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008 39 The Technical Parts of the Paper: The main prerequisite is thorough mastery of the formal aspect of the mathematical methodology, see Chapter Thinking. Only things that are correct can also be presented well! If one masters the formal aspect of mathematics then one can play with styles in dependence of the input parameters of the presentation. Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008 40

Differences between the structure of papers and talks: Talks: Interaction with the addressees possible and desirable. Talks: A variety of different media is available (blackboards, data projector, speech) Talks: Proceed in real-time (with the same speed for all people in the audience)

Talks need an extra written preparation, which is different from the paper! Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008 41 Written Preparation for a Talk: Technicalities Psycho Goal

M P A The actual text of the presentation Media Time Blackbd. ...

Data Proj. P A Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008 42 Exercise: Analyze the structure of Buchbergers paper. Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008

43 Contents: The Role of Written and Oral Presentations The Parameters on Which Presentations Depend Structur of Written and Oral Presentations Technicalities of Written and Oral Presentations Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008 44 Technicalities Technicalities of Talks: see lecture notes. -

Blackboards and slides: - On slides we present facts. (Dont overload!) - On blackboards we develop ideas. Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008 45 Technicalities of Writing Papers: The interplay between text and formulae: syntactical correctness!

Easy readability. Uniformity in style. Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008 46 Some Difficulties in English: The use of passive, one, we, I.

which and that dont and do not, its and its. the, a, an and : The have logical meaning! a .

existential quantifier the instead of a constant (Advice: collect 100 sample phrases from good papers!) British and American English. Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008 47 Contents:

The Role of Written and Oral Presentations The Parameters on Which Presentations Depend Structure of Written and Oral Presentations Technicalities of Written and Oral Presentations Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008 48 Exercise: Choose (a very limited) topic and prepare three versions of a paper and a talk on the topic in dependence on various settings of the input parameters for the presentation. Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008

49 Conclusion (Points of Emphasis of this Lecture) The dependence of presentations on the input parameters: A Topic The addressees Chosen media Size constraints The

presentation The presentation curve: Formal mastery of mathematics is the basis for good style. Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008 50 Another Summary: The 5 aspects and criteria for good talks and papers

Facto (math / comp scie contents): goal oriented Logo: mastering the logical aspect of math / comp scie Socio: directed to a particular audience / readership Psycho: respecting the psychologic fact of learning Techno: the technicalities of talks and papers Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008 51 Additional Details Copyright Bruno Buchberger 2008 52

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