Postwar America

Postwar America

Postwar America Return to a Peacetime Economy Many Americans were scared of peacetime economy. Since war production had stopped and many soldiers' returned home and need work. Instead increased consumer spending after the war helped the economy grow .

Former servicemen received The Servicemens Readjustment Act of 1944, or the GI Bill. This helped boost the economy as well. GI Bill Gave money to veterans to start businesses, buy homes, and attend college. Its not all good!!

Greater demand for goods lead to higher prices As costs of living rose workers in the automobile, steel, electrical, and mining industry went on strike. Truman did not want miners strike to effect the nations energy supply so the government took control of the mines. This lead many Americans to vote republicans into office at midterm elections in 1946.

New Republican Congress Passed the Taft-Hartley act which outlawed closed shop practices or the hiring of just union members. Allowed states to pass right to work laws which outlawed union shops or shops that hired people and made them join unions Outlawed featherbedding or limiting work out put in order to create more jobs.

Truman Veto the Act.. Passed the 22 amendment limiting presidential terms to just 2!!! Trumans Program

Expand Social Security Raise the minimum wage Public housing National health insurance Long range environmental and public works planning Civil Rights Bill that would protect African Americans Right

to Vote, abolish poll taxes, and make lynching a federal crime. Barred discrimination in the federal governement Ended segregation in the armed serivces Most of Trumans Efforts Failed The Election of 1948

The Election of 1948 Many people gave Truman little chance on winning the election due to his programs. Truman traveled more than 20,000 miles by train and made more than 200 campaign speeches. Truman won a narrow but stunning victory over Dewey.

The Fair Deal President Trumans 1949 State of the Union Address Every segment of our population and every individual has a right to respect from our government a fair deal Raised minimum wage by 75 cents an hour, expanded social security to 10 million additional people. Passed National Housing act of 1949 which made

low income housing. The Eisenhower Years Truman decided not to run again because of the war in Korea turning into a bloody stalemate. Dwight Eisenhower was the Republican candidate that they hoped could win. Eisenhower won the election in a landslide Eisenhower had two political beliefs middle of

the road and Dynamic conservatism(balancing conservative economics and activism) Extending Social Security Eisenhower extended social security to an additional 10 million people and raised minimum wages Provided relief to farmers Led to a decade of tremendous prosperity

Growth of Suburbia Growth of Suburbia https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=pla yer_detailpage&v=OApZePeJSdU Between 1947 and 1951 families rushed to the suburbs to buy up cheap housing. Between 1940-1960 the percentage of

Americans that owned their homes rose drastically from 41% to 61% Baby Boom The Birth rate exploded after WWII. From 1945-1961 65 MILLION!!!! Children were born in the United States. At the height of this baby boom 1 child was born every 7 seconds!!! After the war couples got married and started families the GI bill provided them with

money needed to have large families. It was popular to have large families during the 1950s. Interstate Highway System On June 29, 1956, President Dwight Eisenhower signed the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956. The bill created a 41,000mile National System of Interstate and Defense Highways that would, according to Eisenhower, eliminate unsafe roads, inefficient routes, traffic jams and all of the other things that got in the way of speedy, safe transcontinental travel. At

the same time, highway advocates argued, in case of atomic attack on our key cities, the road net [would] permit quick evacuation of target areas. For all of these reasons, the 1956 law declared that the construction of an elaborate expressway system was essential to the national interest. The changing workplace Many people began to have office jobs rather than labor jobs or factory jobs due to the use of

machinery in factories. Some corporations expanded over seas and became multinational corporations. Franchises became popular during the 50s. Where one person could own different locations in a large chain of businesses. Example. McDonalds Scientific Advancements

Small Portable radios emerged. The first computer is invented Jet engine technology is invented Radiation and chemotherapy treatments for cancer are invented CPR is developed The first pacemakers are invented Dr. Jonas Salk developed a inject able vaccine for polio.

Albert Sabin developed an oral polio vaccine Vaccine for tuberculosis is invented The Rise of the Television Television became very popular in t he 1950s, more than 40 million tv sets had been sold and 80 % of American families owned one. Shows like I love Lucy, Comedian shows staring Bob Hope and Jack Benny, Variety shows such as Ed

Sullivans Toast of the Town, Quiz shows such as the $64,000 Question, and westerns like The Lone Ranger and Gunsmoke were being watched across America. TV shows hurt movie attendance. Hollywood Adapts Cinemascope or movies shot on a full panoramic view was developed and helped

movie regain popularity. The Robe and Around the World in 80 Days were the first to be shot in this way. Hollywood started to use special effects, elaborate costumes, glamorous movie stars, exciting storylines, exotic locales, and huge marketing campaigns gave them an edge. Rock n Roll

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IzylKK8hu Qc&feature=player_detailpage&list=PL390141 A638523E5F Teens bough recordings from such artists as Buddy Holly, Chuck Berry, Bill Haley and the Comets, Elvis Presley, Fats Domino, Little Richard, and Jerry Lee Lewis Rock n Roll created a generation gap or the separation between children and their

parents. Poverty in the 50s Amid all the prosperity people still lived below the poverty line or the minimum income needed to support a family. Poverty was most apparent in the inner city. As middle class families moved to the suburbs poverty stricken families were all that remained. The middle

class took their tax dollars with them and the lower class suffered. Urban renewal programs started by tearing down slums and building new high rises for poor residents. Appalachia The mountainous region of Appalachia was hit very hard as Coal mining mechanized. This lead to vast unemployment and malnutrition and poor

schools were sometimes considered worse than inner cities. Many people moved from Appalachia to bigger cities in hope of bettering themselves. Juvenile Delinquency also became a problem in America with a 45% rise in the Juvenile Crime rate. Kennedy Takes Office Upon entering office Kennedy started an agenda known as

the New Frontier. New Frontier- increase educational aid, provide health insurance to the elderly, and create a Department of Urban Affairs. Kennedy succeeded in expanding the economy, help hold down prices, and pushed for tax cuts. Kennedy expanded womens rights by calling for action against gender discrimination. He proposed the Equal Pay Act. Kennedy also pushed for federal funding for mental

retardation. Warren Court Chief Justice Earl Warren changed a number of U.S. Laws Reapportionment- rural areas with far less people had more representatives the urban areas with far more people. Warren redrew district lines so that it was more equal. He

coined the phrase one person one vote. This was decided in the supreme court case Baker v. Carr and Reynolds v. Sims Warren Court Separation of church and state- no prayer in school and no state mandated bible readings 14th amendment states that no state shall deprive any person of life, liberty, or property

without the due process of law. Due process means the law can not treat individuals unfairly. Griswold v. Connecticut- states cant prohibit the sale of birth control. Kennedys Flexible Response President Kennedy wanted a build up of troops and conventional weapons. He wanted to expand the nations special forces divisions and NOT rely on nuclear weapons

as much. Although he still continued the build up of ICBMs through his presidency because he though there was a missile gap ( that the Soviet Union had more Nuclear Bombs than we did) Aid to Latin American Countries Kennedy wanted to renew diplomatic focus on helping Latin American Countries.

He started alliance for progress or a series of projects aimed at creating a free and prosperous latin america. We pledged $20 billion dollars over a 10 year period to help these countries build schools, housing, provide better health care, and fairer land distribution. The Peace Corps- formed to fight poverty and give humanitarian relief to foreign countries. Students normal spent 2 years in the peace corps. Many volunteers built roads, taught English, laid out sewage systems, and trained medical technicians.

Space Race https://app.discoveryeducation.com/learn/videos/8DA78BB6-2CC5-4ED9-9573-544 DE3ECAA2A?hasLocalHost=false Bay of Pigs https://app.discoveryeducation.com/learn/vid eos/F1FDE383-17DA-4894-A291-1C5C01A622 ED?hasLocalHost=false

The Cuban Missile Crisis https://app.discoveryeducation.com/learn/vid eos/D4048F85-4336-4F4A-9B36-E78C17428B4 F?hasLocalHost=false The Berlin Wall https://app.discoveryeducation.com/learn/vid eos/F801C67B-47C1-48C1-88C4-BE5E6567AB2

7?hasLocalHost=false Death of JFK https://app.discoveryeducation.com/learn/vid eos/E3129E12-0372-4DF1-B58D-945894B1AE D9?hasLocalHost=false The Great Society https://app.discoveryeducation.com/learn/vid

eos/08486BD3-0D17-433B-AFCA-F1BBCDDD3 452?hasLocalHost=false

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