Eric Prebys, Program Director US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) Ultimate tribute Sept 10, 2008 10/24/2008 LHC Status Commissioning Sept. 19 Helium Leak Future upgrade plans Phase I Phase II, including injector chain US Contributions
LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) Accelerator Projects for the LHC (APL) E. Prebys, USLUO Collaboration Meeting 10/24/2008 2 The LHC startup on September 10 was the most elaborate media event in the history of physics (history of science?) Fermilab staged a simultaneous event in the [email protected] Remote Operations Center (ROC) Over 400 staff, reporters, and members of the public attended the 1:30 AM (CDT) Pajama Party Local monitoring Generic synoptic display Access to LHC eLogBook Full CMS event displays
Selected LHC accelerator processes E. Prebys, USLUO Collaboration Meeting 10/24/2008 3 9:35 First beam injected 9:58 beam past CMS to point 6 dump 10:15 beam to point 1 (ATLAS) 10:26 First turn! and there was much
rejoicing E. Prebys, USLUO Collaboration Meeting 10/24/2008 4 Beam 2 was circulated in 2 hours After a few days, beam had been captured with RF and achieved several hour lifetimes. Optics measurements showed some small polarity problems, but no major problems
Switching to beam 1 when a tranformer problem held beam off for a few days E. Prebys, USLUO Collaboration Meeting 10/24/2008 5 CERN has gone to unprecedented lengths to control information about this incident, including modifying the electronic logbook. CERN personnel have been threatened with disciplinary action for releasing unauthorized information (particularly pictures). I am primarily relying on the detailed interim report*, released October 16, which remains the only official information.
I have also included some valuable information from conversations and talks. I believe that everything Im presenting is correct and non-controversial, but will refrain from acknowledging anyone just in case. *https://edms.cern.ch/file/973073/1/Report_on_080919_incident_at_LHC__2_.pdf E. Prebys, USLUO Collaboration Meeting 10/24/2008 6 Italian newspapers are very poetic (at least as translated by Babel Fish): "the black cloud of the bitterness still has not been dissolved on the small forest in which they are dipped the candid buildings of the CERN" Lyn Evans, head of the plan, support that it was better to wait for before igniting the machine and making the verifications of the parts.*
Or you can Google What really happened at CERN: ** * Big Bang, il test bloccato fino all primavera 2009, Corriere dela Sera, Sept. 24, 2008 **http://www.rense.com/general83/IncidentatCERN.pdf E. Prebys, USLUO Collaboration Meeting 10/24/2008 7 On September 19th, sector 3-4 was being ramped to 9.3 kA, the equivalent of 5.5 TeV All other sectors had already been ramped to this level Sector 3-4 had previously only been ramped to 7 kA (4.1 TeV) At 11:18AM, a quench developed in the splice between dipole C24 and quadrupole Q24 Not initially detected by quench protection circuit
Power supply tripped at .46 sec Discharge switches activated at .86 sec Within the first second, and arc formed at the site of the quench Helium pressure rose beyond .13 MPa and ruptured into the insulation vacuum. Vacuum also degraded in the beam pipe E. Prebys, USLUO Collaboration Meeting 10/24/2008 8 Electrical noise triggered quench detection in other subsectors. Helium escaped into the insulation vacuum
Most subsectors remained below the limit of 2.1 MPa except 19-21, which triggered the relief valves and vented into the tunnel. Pressure differential at the vaccum barriers between vacuum subsectors resulted in large forces Short straight sections moved significantly on their stands, sometimes breaking loose from the concrete anchors. The motion broke several He jumpers, resulting in more Helium loss. In the end, approximately 6 out of 15 tonnes of Helium were lost from the sector. E. Prebys, USLUO Collaboration Meeting 10/24/2008 9 E. Prebys, USLUO Collaboration Meeting
10/24/2008 10 E. Prebys, USLUO Collaboration Meeting 10/24/2008 11 At most 24 dipoles and 5 quadrupoles will have to be replaced Damage primarily to the superinsulation Cold mass probably OK in most cases Most can be repaired outside of the tunnel Studying contamination of vacuum pipe Both vacuum pipes compromised Endoscope shows soot and MLI not as bad as expected Investigating course of action
Investigating Improvements in detection Indirect: Joule-Thompson valves Direct: Improvements to detection Improvements to mitigation Pressure relief E. Prebys, USLUO Collaboration Meeting 10/24/2008 12 Warm-up First magnets out next week Turn-on still officially May 1
E. Prebys, USLUO Collaboration Meeting 10/24/2008 13 Initial operation Ramp up to 1x1034 cm-2s-1 Phase I upgrade After ~2 years of operation (~2012) Replace 70 mm triplet quads with 120 mm quads * goes from 50->25 cm Luminosity goes to 2.5x1034 cm-2s-1
Phase II upgrade Second half of next decade (nominally 2016) Luminosity goal: 1x1035 Details still under study New technology for larger aperture quads (Nb Sn) 3 crab cavities? Improved injector chain (PS2?) E. Prebys, USLUO Collaboration Meeting 10/24/2008 14 Proton flux / Beam power 50 MeV 160 MeV Linac4 SPL RCPSB
PSB 1.4 GeV ~ 5 GeV Output energy Linac2 26 GeV 40 60 GeV PS 450 GeV 1 TeV PS2 (PS2+) SPS LHC 7 TeV ~ 14 TeV SPS+
DLHC SPL Linac4: PSB injector (160 MeV) SPL: Superconducting Proton Linac (~ 5 GeV) SPL: RCPSB injector (0.16 to 0.4-1 GeV) RCPSB: Rapid Cycling PSB (0.4-1 to ~ 5 GeV) PS2: High Energy PS (~ 5 to 50 GeV 0.3 Hz) PS2+: Superconducting PS (~ 5 to 50 GeV 0.3 Hz) SPS+: Superconducting SPS (50 to1000 GeV) DLHC: Double energy LHC (1 to ~14 TeV) M. Benedikt, R. Garoby, CERN DG E. Prebys, USLUO Collaboration Meeting 10/24/2008
15 E. Prebys, USLUO Collaboration Meeting 10/24/2008 16 E. Prebys, USLUO Collaboration Meeting 10/24/2008 17 Inner triplets and feed boxes at CMS and ATLAS IPs Fermilab-KEK collaboration In spite of some commissioning problems, triplets installed and have been ramped to full 7 TeV US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) Coordinates US R&D for the LHC
FNAL, BNL, LBNL, SLAC, and some UT Austin Some instrumentation deliverables for initial operation R&D for future luminosity upgrades Major effort to develop Nb3Sn magnets for Phase II upgrades Accelerator Projects for the LHC (APL) New program to coordinate larger scale construction projects for the LHC Currently being organized around several phase-I activities Exact scope and nature being determined E. Prebys, USLUO Collaboration Meeting 10/24/2008 18 E. Prebys, USLUO Collaboration Meeting 10/24/2008 19
Schottky detector Used for non-perturbative tune measurements (+chromaticities, momentum spread and transverse emmitances) Tune tracking Implement a PLL with pick-ups and quads to lock LHC tune Investigating generalization to chromaticity tracking AC dipole US AC dipole to drive beam Measure both linear and non-linear beam optics
Luminosity monitor High radiation ionization detector integrated with the LHC neutral beam absorber (TAN) at IP 1 and 5. E. Prebys, USLUO Collaboration Meeting 10/24/2008 20 Rotating collimators Can rotate different facets into place after catastrophic beam incidents Aim for prototype in FY09 Crystal Collimation CRYSTAL Collaboration
T980 Beam-beam studies General simulation Electron lens Wire compensation Electron cloud studies Study effects of electron cloud in LHC and injector chain E. Prebys, USLUO Collaboration Meeting 10/24/2008 21
Crab cavities Transverse fields rotate bunches to compensate for crossing angle in final upgrade Goal: one cavity in Phase I upgrade, 2 (global) or 4 (local) in Phase II Significant opportunity Collaboration with KEK, CERN, and Daresbury But big job, lots of $$ PS2 opportunities Significant synergy with Project X Ecloud Injection, collective instabilities Laser stripping RF E. Prebys, USLUO Collaboration Meeting 10/24/2008
22 Decreasing spot size at interaction region requires larger apertures and higher gradients at focusing quads High gradient/large aperture means higher fields at the coil than are possible with Traditional NbTi A major part of LARP (half budget) is focused on developing accererator grade quads based on Nb3Sn E. Prebys, USLUO Collaboration Meeting 10/24/2008 23 Magnet groups at FNAL, BNL, and LBNL working to develop 4m Nb3Sn magnet appropriate for use in the LHC Phase II upgrade.
Currently pushing all parameters Plan first accelerator quality prototype (QA) to be plug compatible with Phase I NbTi magnets Long Quad (LQ): 4m quad with 90 mm aperture High field Quad (HQ): 1m quad with 130 mm aperture Nb3Sn would give larger termperature margin Parameters of final prototype (QB) will be determined by Phase II optics decisions E. Prebys, USLUO Collaboration Meeting 10/24/2008 24
Long Term Visitors program Pay transportations and living expenses for US scientists working at CERN for extended periods (at least 6 months/year) Interested parties coordinate with a CERN sponsor and apply to the program (Jim Strait) Plan to support 4 in FY09 Toohig Fellowship Named for Tim Toohig Open to recent PhDs Successful candidates divide their time between CERN and one of the four host labs. Currently 4 Toohig Fellows in program E. Prebys, USLUO Collaboration Meeting 10/24/2008
25 LARP is not really equipped to deal with large deliverables Primarily an R&D organization Insufficient contingency APL is being developed to handle larger projects with hard deliverables. Initially comprises projects for the Phase I upgrade. Considering an ongoing relationship where LARP R&D feeds into APL projects. E. Prebys, USLUO Collaboration Meeting
10/24/2008 26 Priority 1: NbTi separator dipoles based on RHIC design Feedboxes Priority 2: Laser wire profile monitor for LINAC4 LLRF for LINAC4 Priority 3: 5 Rotatable collimators (asynchronous to Phase I) E. Prebys, USLUO Collaboration Meeting
10/24/2008 27 Steve Peggs acting program manager Searching for permanent program manager Establishing DOE project office Schedule CD-0: CD-1: CD-2: CD-3: CD-4: very soon Q2 FY09 Q4 FY09 Q2 FY10 Q4 FY12
E. Prebys, USLUO Collaboration Meeting 10/24/2008 28 The turn on of the LHC was truly incredible. Recent events are unfortunate, but these things happen, and CERN is dealing with the problem as efficiently as possible. The US has made significant contributions to the accelerator effort, and will continue to do so through the LARP and APL programs. E. Prebys, USLUO Collaboration Meeting 10/24/2008 29
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