Plug-In 2009 Template

Plug-In 2009 Template

Media framing of unconventional fossil fuels: The absence of climate dialogue in Canadas Northern Gateway Project Paper: Nichole Dusyk, Jonn Axsen & Kia Dullemond Presenter: Dr. Jonn Axsen, Associate Professor, Director, Sustainable Transportation Action Research Team (START), Simon Fraser University January 9, 2017 1 Sustainable Transportation Action Research Team (START) Pipelines, politics, and society 3

4 Controversy and unconventional fossil fuels NGP: Proposed to transport bitumen 1,172 km 5 from Alberta oil sands to Northern BC Coast Controversy over new fossil fuel extraction 6 Benefits: Industry Job creation Economy Local risks: Pipeline spills

Tanker spills Land rights Air quality Water quality Ecosystems Global risks: Climate change Carbon budget: we can only burn so much more fossil fuel to stay within 2C limit Source: Nature, 2012 7 Federal rhetoric Joe Oliver, Natural Resource Minister: There are environmental and other radical groups that would seek to block this opportunity to diversity our trade

[these groups] threaten to hijack our regulatory system to achieve their radical ideological agenda. - CBC news, January 9, 2012 8 9 What do Canadian citizens think about the pipeline? Substantial regional variation in support: Highest resistance in British Columbia 10 Statement: I support the Enbridge Northern Gateway Project 60% Alberta

50% Central 40% 30% BC 20% Strongly Agree 10% Agree Atlantic

0% Disagree Strongly Disagree Source: Axsen (2014), Energy Policy Alberta perceives more economic benefits; BC perceives more environmental risks 11 Canadian Oil Sands There are major environmental impacts from oil sands.* BC Canada should keep or expand the size of the oil sands.* Canada should decrease or shut down the oil sands.*

The pipeline project ...will create jobs.* ...will provide benefits to my province.* ...will provide economic benefits to Canadians.* ...has unacceptable environmental risks.* ...will increase overall greenhouse gas emissions.* ...should instead be built to eastern Canada or the United States. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%

60% 70% 80% 90% * Chi-square association at 99% confidence level Source: Axsen (2014), Energy Policy Substantial within-region variations in support among value segments BC sample (n = 813) 12 AB sample (n = 508) Traditional

80% Self-oriented 60% Self-oriented Unengaged Traditional Unengaged 40% Strongly Agree 20% Agree 0%

Disagree Strongly Disagree Multi-valued Multi-valued Mildly aware Strong enviro. Mildly aware Strong enviro. Statement: I support the Enbridge Northern Gateway Project Source: Axsen (2014), Energy Policy 13 Media analysis: How is the Northern Gateway

Pipeline framed in Canadian media (2008-2014) The study Research objectives: 1. Characterize media framing 2. 3. Identify regional difference Explore environmental frame Method: 2097 print articles Socio-political evaluation of energy deployment (SPEED) framework (Stephens et al. 2008) Economic First Nations Technological Health & Safety

Socio-cultural Political Environmental (Climate, coastal, terrestrial, other) 14 Articles by year: 2012 peak in political activity 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 2008

2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Most focus on economic benefit and environmental risks 1800 Pro Risk

1600 1400 1200 As a resource driven economy, there's no question that Canada needs access to tidewater and the project is going to generate billions in terms of spinoffs, thousands of jobs and benefits to communities (Globe and Mail A246) the most critical element of the proposal is the risk it poses. First, pipelines do leak. tis northern pipeline would cross a thousand streams and rivers, including two of Canada's most important salmon-bearing watersheds,. (Province A178) 1000 800

600 400 200 0 Economic Environment First Nations Health Political Socio-cultural Project feasibility statements tend to be negative; little regional difference 10

5 % Sources 0 British Columbia Alberta National -5 -10 -15 -20 Positive -25

Negative Little difference in regional focus on benefits and risks 60% British Columbia Alberta National 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Ben

Risk Pro Mentions of environmental risks are mostly general or spill related; little mention of climate change 900 800 700 The proposed line has prompted fierce opposition in B.C.about potential oil spills and increased greenhouse gas emissions from expanding the oil sands. (Herald A119) 600 500 400

300 200 100 0 Climate Coastal General/Other Territorial Some Take Home Points 20 1. Strong media focus on economy versus environment 2. Little regional variation in media frames, although citizen support and opposition strongly vary

3. Media coverage largely ignores climate change impacts environmental groups could better invoke climate framing Much has changed post-2014 New national government (Trudeau) in 2015 Serious climate policy announced, including carbon pricing Northern Gateway pipeline rejected but Trans-mountain pipeline (Kinder-Morgan) approved Eco-modernization frame, but not carbon budget

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