Plant Cells, Tissues, and Systems Sec C3.1 Unit C Objectives describe the specialized structures and
functions of cells in the leaf system explain the transport system in plants relate a multi-cellular level of organization with cell, tissue, and system specialization Multicellular vs Unicellular
What are the advantages to having a large structure with lots of cells? Division of Labour When a cell is specialized (performs a particular function), it is more effective and efficient. A single-celled organism must multitask (do many jobs).
Multicellular vs Unicellular Size The surface area to volume ratio and related rate of diffusion restricts growth in unicellular organisms. Efficient transport systems within multicellular organisms allow for
growth. Multicellular vs Unicellular Interdependence of Cells A single-celled organism is dependent on that one cell. If a multicellular organism loses a
cell, the entire organism will not die. However, a cell not functioning properly (ex. cancerous) can cause problems for the rest of the organism. Plant Structure Plants are multicellular: made of many parts, each
with its own function organized in increasing complex levels of organization Tissues= group of cells performing same function together Organs= tissues contributing to same function System= group of interconnected organs (two in plants) Shoot system everything above ground
Root system everything below ground and aerial roots What about animals? What are some examples of tissues, organs and systems in humans? Ex. Heart/cardiac tissue heart circulatory system
Do now Find the definition/function associated with each of the following terms (workbook - chart) Meristem Dermal tissue/epidermis
How did you do? Meristem- growth areas Dermal tissue/epidermis- outer layer of cells; responsible for exchange of matter and gases and protection Cuticle- waxy substance; resists attack and prevents water loss Ground tissue- majority of plant; strength
and support (stem); food and water storage (roots); site of photosynthesis (leaves) How did you do? Vascular tissue- transport of materials; xylem and phloem Xylem- moves water and minerals from roots to leaves; thick, non-living, perforated cells
Phloem- transports sucrose and other sugars from leaves to other parts; made of sieve cells Sieve tube cells- form continuous ducts; perforated Companion cells- direct activity of sieve tube cells Plant Growth Cells divide to grow and repair
damage. This cell division is called mitosis. In plants, increase in size results from the cell division in growth areas called Rapidly meristems dividing cells Cell walls thin,
nuclei are large, vacuoles, small or Meristems Onion root tip note different stages of mitosis (cell division)
Specialization of Cells Once cells are no longer in the meristem, they will specialize Produce products only for their function
The root and shoot systems are made up of 3 types of tissues: Dermal Tissue (epidermis) Ground Tissue Vascular Tissue Types of Tissue Dermal Tissue
Outer layer of cells that covers all herbaceous (non-woody) plants. Responsible for exchange of matter and gases into and out of the plant. Also protects the plant from disease. This is done by the cuticle (waxy substance), which resists attacks from micro-organisms and helps
reduce water loss. Types of Tissue Ground Tissue Found underneath epidermis, it makes up majority of plant. Provides strength and support to the plant (stem).
Involved in food and water storage (roots). Location of photosynthesis (leaves). Types of Tissue Vascular Tissue Responsible for transport of material, which occurs in xylem tissue and
phloem tissue Vascular Tissue xylem Cells in xylem tissue allow transport of water Die when differentiate leaving empty tubes Long fibres in
celery are vascular tissue (both xylem and phloem) Vascular Tissue phloem
Phloem Tissue Formed from long sieve tube cells (no nuclei), which are connected with companion cells (nucleated) that direct activity. Transports carbohydrates and water from the leaves to other parts of the plant.
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