Plant Cells, Tissues, and Systems

Plant Cells, Tissues, and Systems

Plant Cells, Tissues, and Systems Sec C3.1 Unit C Objectives describe the specialized structures and

functions of cells in the leaf system explain the transport system in plants relate a multi-cellular level of organization with cell, tissue, and system specialization Multicellular vs Unicellular

What are the advantages to having a large structure with lots of cells? Division of Labour When a cell is specialized (performs a particular function), it is more effective and efficient. A single-celled organism must multitask (do many jobs).

Multicellular vs Unicellular Size The surface area to volume ratio and related rate of diffusion restricts growth in unicellular organisms. Efficient transport systems within multicellular organisms allow for

growth. Multicellular vs Unicellular Interdependence of Cells A single-celled organism is dependent on that one cell. If a multicellular organism loses a

cell, the entire organism will not die. However, a cell not functioning properly (ex. cancerous) can cause problems for the rest of the organism. Plant Structure Plants are multicellular: made of many parts, each

with its own function organized in increasing complex levels of organization Tissues= group of cells performing same function together Organs= tissues contributing to same function System= group of interconnected organs (two in plants) Shoot system everything above ground

Root system everything below ground and aerial roots What about animals? What are some examples of tissues, organs and systems in humans? Ex. Heart/cardiac tissue heart circulatory system

Do now Find the definition/function associated with each of the following terms (workbook - chart) Meristem Dermal tissue/epidermis

Cuticle Ground tissue Vascular tissue Xylem tissue Phloem tissue Sieve tube cells Companion cells

How did you do? Meristem- growth areas Dermal tissue/epidermis- outer layer of cells; responsible for exchange of matter and gases and protection Cuticle- waxy substance; resists attack and prevents water loss Ground tissue- majority of plant; strength

and support (stem); food and water storage (roots); site of photosynthesis (leaves) How did you do? Vascular tissue- transport of materials; xylem and phloem Xylem- moves water and minerals from roots to leaves; thick, non-living, perforated cells

Phloem- transports sucrose and other sugars from leaves to other parts; made of sieve cells Sieve tube cells- form continuous ducts; perforated Companion cells- direct activity of sieve tube cells Plant Growth Cells divide to grow and repair

damage. This cell division is called mitosis. In plants, increase in size results from the cell division in growth areas called Rapidly meristems dividing cells Cell walls thin,

nuclei are large, vacuoles, small or Meristems Onion root tip note different stages of mitosis (cell division)

Specialization of Cells Once cells are no longer in the meristem, they will specialize Produce products only for their function

The root and shoot systems are made up of 3 types of tissues: Dermal Tissue (epidermis) Ground Tissue Vascular Tissue Types of Tissue Dermal Tissue

Outer layer of cells that covers all herbaceous (non-woody) plants. Responsible for exchange of matter and gases into and out of the plant. Also protects the plant from disease. This is done by the cuticle (waxy substance), which resists attacks from micro-organisms and helps

reduce water loss. Types of Tissue Ground Tissue Found underneath epidermis, it makes up majority of plant. Provides strength and support to the plant (stem).

Involved in food and water storage (roots). Location of photosynthesis (leaves). Types of Tissue Vascular Tissue Responsible for transport of material, which occurs in xylem tissue and

phloem tissue Vascular Tissue xylem Cells in xylem tissue allow transport of water Die when differentiate leaving empty tubes Long fibres in

celery are vascular tissue (both xylem and phloem) Vascular Tissue phloem

Phloem Tissue Formed from long sieve tube cells (no nuclei), which are connected with companion cells (nucleated) that direct activity. Transports carbohydrates and water from the leaves to other parts of the plant.

Leaf Cross section http://dendro.cnre.vt.edu/forestbiology/photosynthesis.swf Vascular Tissue Vascular tissue

From: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4V0VcNCRKTo&feature=related at Vascular Bundles Sieve tubes More specialization:

Roots Cells in root system will produce tiny hair-like projections called root hairs Why is this beneficial for the plant? Increases the surface area for absorption of water

Root hairs Root hairs More Dermal cells in shoot system produce a cuticle

Why is this beneficial? Prevents water loss And last Lower epidermis in leaves have guard cells Form tiny pores called stomata for gas exchange

Only cells with chloroplasts Why is this important? Photosynthesis! Leaf Cross section http://dendro.cnre.vt.edu/forestbiology/photosynthesis.swf

Leaf Cross section Can you indentify some of the structures? How does water move up the plant? Gravity should pull water down how does it move up from the roots to the leaves? How

do all these specializations allow for this? Shall be investigating this in this section. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U4rzLhz4H Hk&feature=related

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