Plans for Radioactive Beam Facilities in Europe

Plans for Radioactive Beam Facilities in Europe

Challenges for EURISOL and the EURISOL Design Study Yorick Blumenfeld OUTLINE

The Standard scientific case The EURISOL concept and performances Technical Challenges and the Design Study Task 10 : Physics and Instrumentation Goals of the Workshop The Nuclear Chart and Challenges ab initio calculations for light nuclei Systematic study of light nuclei (A<12) shows the necessity of including a 3-body force

R.B. Wiringa and S.C. Pieper, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (2002) 182501 Modification of magic numbers far from stability E* (MeV) Lowest 2+ state 4 3 2 Ca

20 1 Mg 12 S 16

0 12 16 20 24 N

Effect of shell closures on element abundances 46 Ar(d,p) 10 MeV/A @ SPIRAL with MUST L. Gaudefroy, thse Neutron-proton pairing

n-p pairing can occur in 2 different states: T=0 and T=1. The former is unique to n-p. It can be best studied in N=Z nuclei through spectroscopy and 2-nucleon transfer reactions. Collective Modes Atomic nuclei display a variety of collective modes in which an assembly of neutrons moves coherently [e.g Low-lying vibrations and rotations. Challenge:Will new types of collective mode be observed in neutron-rich nuclei in particular?

Will the nucleus become a threefluid system-made up of a proton and neutron core plus a skin of neutrons? We will then get collective modes in which the skin moves relative to the core. From W. Gelletly Two-proton radioactivity near the proton drip-line Proton energy and angle correlations di-proton emission?

J. Giovinazzo et al., PRL89 (2002) 102501 Two-proton decay Q2p = 1.14 MeV T1/2 = 3.8 ms Super heavy elements : discovery and spectroscopy

GSI Z112 RIKEN Z=113 DUBNA Z to 118? 294 118 Synthesis of new elements/isotopes (Z 120)) Spectroscopy of Transfermium elements (Z 10)8)) Shell structure of superheavy nuclei

Studying the liquid-gas phase transition far from stability Neutron rich nuclei: isospin distillation Bonche Vautherin NPA 1984 pressure Muller Serot PRC 1995 asymmetry p/n

Proton rich nuclei: vanishing limiting temperatures From Ph. Chomaz and F. Gulminelli Radioactive beam production: Two complementary methods GANIL/SISSI, GSI, RIKEN, NSCL/MSU High energy, large variety of species, Poor optical qualities, lack of energy flexibility

GANIL/SPIRAL, REX/ISOLDE, ISAAC/TRIUMF good beam qualities, flexibility, intensity Low energy, chemistry is difficult The NuPECC Recommendation NuPECC recommends the construction of 2 next generation RIB infrastructures in Europe, i.e. one ISOL and one in-flight facility. The in-flight machine would arise from a major upgrade of the current GSI facility, while

EURISOL would constitute the new ISOL facility The EURISOL Road Map Vigorous scientific exploitation of current ISOL facilities : EXCYT, Louvain, REX/ISOLDE, SPIRAL Construction of intermediate generation facilities : MAFF, REX upgrade, SPES, SPIRAL2 Design and prototyping of the most specific and challenging parts of EURISOL in the framework of EURISOL_DS.

SPIRAL2 The EURISOL Concept The EURISOL Concept Total cost : 613 M Some beam intensities Calculations for EURISOL : Helge Ravn He 5X1013 pps

18 Ne 5X1012 pps 6 Yields after acceleration Comparison between facilities Intensity (pps) a) Kr isotopes

a) Yield for in-flight production of fission fragments at relativistic energy Experimental Areas Astrophysics Structure Low Energy Reactions The Major Technological Challenges for

EURISOL 5 MW proton accelerator also capable of accelerating A/Q = 2. Target(s) sustaining this power and allowing fast release of nuclei Efficient and selective ion sources producing multi-charged ions Multi charge state acceleration of radioactive beams with minimal losses Radioprotection and safety issues The EURISOL_DS in the 6th

framework Detailed engineering oriented studies and technical prototyping work 21 participants from 14 countries 21 contributors from Europe, Asia and North America Total Cost : 33 M Contribution from EU : 9.16 M 11 Tasks Physics, beams and safety Physics and instrumentation (Liverpool)

Beam intensity calculations (GSI) Safety and radioprotection (Saclay) Accelerators : Synergies with HIPPI (CARE) Proton accelerator design (INFN Legnaro) Heavy ion accelerator design (GANIL) SC cavity development (IPN Orsay): SC cavity prototypes and multipurpose cryomodule Targets and ion sources : Synergies with spallation sources Multi-MW target station (CERN) : mercury converter Direct target (CERN) : Several target-ion source prototypes

Fission target (INFN Legnaro) : UCx target BB : Synergies with BENE Beam preparation (Jyvskyl) : 60 GHz ECR source Beta-beam aspects (CERN) TASK 10 : Physics & Instrumentation Robert Page, Angela Bonaccorso, Nigel Orr Expected Deliverables

Broad scientific goals selected Key experiments selected Evaluation of feasibility Conceptual design of apparatus Costing of instrumentation Definition of beam properties Goals of the Workshop

Update the Physics Case : new ideas and new concepts. What are the key experiments which will test these concepts? What are the requirements of the facility : species, energy, . How do we carry forward the involvement of theoreticians in the Design Study, and more generally in the EURISOL road map. Combination of beta beam with low energy super beam

Unique to CERN- based scenario combines CP and T violation tests e (+) (T) e (+) (CP) e (-) (T) e (-)

CERN-SPL-based Neutrino SUPERBEAM 300 MeV Neutrinos small contamination from e (no K at 2 GeV!) Frjus underground lab. A large underground water Cerenkov (400 kton) UNO/HyperK or/and a large L.Arg detector. also : proton decay search, supernovae events solar and

atmospheric neutrinos. Performance similar to J-PARC II There is a window of opportunity for digging the cavern starting in 2008 (safety tunnel in Frejus or TGV test gallery) CERN : -beam baseline scenario Time scales 2005 2007 FAIR

Project definition Construction Exploitation 2010 2012 2016 AGATA

(Advanced GAmma Tracking Array) 4 -array for Nuclear Physics Experiments at European accelerators providing radioactive and high-intensity Main stable beamsof AGATA features Efficiency: 40% (M =1) =30) todays arrays 5% (gain ~1000)

25% (M ~10% (gain ~4) Peak/Total: 55% (M=1) 45% (M=30) today ~55%

40% Angular Resolution: ~1 FWHM (1 MeV, v/c=50%) ~ 6 keV !!! today keV 180 or 120 large volume 36-fold segmented Ge crystals ~40 in 60 or 40 tripleRates: 3 MHz (M=1) 300 kHz (M =30) clusters

Digital electronics and sophisticated Shape Analysis today Pulse 1 MHz 20 algorithms kHz allow Operation of Ge detectors in position sensitive mode -ray tracking J. Simpson Demonstrator ready by 2007 Construction of full array from 2008 ??

The Rare Isotope Accelerator (USA) RIA (USA)

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