grow in many sizes, shapes and colors lack special tissues and organs They have special structures that allow water to pump through their body which help the sponge to respire and filter food and excrete waste. can be encrusting, boring, vaselike, treelike, and can be several meters in diameter Specific Types Encrusting
flat, soft, found on rocky shores and tide pools Tubular vase-shaped, hard, found in calm tropical waters & coral reefs pecten sponge soft, has a mutually symbiotic relationship with a bivalve mollusk (scallop)
sponge grows on the scallops shell, completely covering the shell. The sponge gets a place to live and more water to filter the scallop gets protection- something may try to bite the scallop and will just scrape off sponge and the sponge will regenerate. boring sponge
bores holes into the shell of the gastropod (snail ) called an abalone and eats the abalone (parasitic) Sponge Anatomy skeletons made of spongin (flexible) spicules (prickly) siliceous- silicon spicules calcareous- calcium spicules tiny pores on the outside called porocyte cells (water comes into the sponge here) Epithelial cells cover the outside of the sponge A large opening (pore) is the osculum, where the water exits the sponge
Sponge Anatomy cont Collar cells with flagella set up a current by beating whip tails, which bring water in the pore cells and out the osculum Amoebocyte cells transport and digest nutrients, while also making spicules (act as amoebas within sponge body) Filter chamber tunnels in the body wall, contain the collar cells Atrium large central opening Sponge Digestion Sponges have NO digestive system, only digestive cells
Sponges feed on detritus (bacteria, plankton, animal matter) by filter feeding Food is trapped by the collar cells, while the amoebaocytes distribute the nutrients Wastes are expelled through the osculum Sponge Reproduction Sponges can reproduce sexually and asexually Sexually- shed sperm & eggs into the water (hermaphroditic) Asexually- budding & gemmules Sponges also have amazing powers of regeneration
Sponge Symbiotic Relationships Sponges often form symbiotic relationships (live in close association with another species) Mutualism- Commensalism- :I Parasitism-
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