Phrases Phrases When one adjective or adverb cannot convey enough information, a phrase can contribute more detail to a sentence. A phrase is a group of words that does not include a subject and verb and cannot stand alone as a sentence.
Kinds of Phrases Prepositional phrases Appositive phrases Participial phrases Gerund phrases Infinitive phrases Prepositional Phrases A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition and a noun or pronoun, called the object of the preposition.
between the window and the wall preposition object object with the wind and the freezing rain Preposition
object object beside the underground stream and rock Preposition object
object Adjectival Phrases An adjectival phrase is a prepositional phrase that modifies(describes) a noun or pronoun by telling what kind or which one. A painting of great beauty hung in the palace. Mary had lunch from a paperbag. The mansion across the road has been abandoned. Lets take a picture of the Eiffel Tower.
I gave the people on the bus a tour. France is a country with many charms. Adjectival Phrases A sentence may contain two or more adjectival phrases. We bought tickets for the trip to Paris. The painting of the zoo in the museum is old.
Adverbial Phrases An adverbial phrase is a prepositional phrase that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb by pointing out where, why when, in what way, or to what extent. Adverbial Phrases She ran with speed. (tells in what way) I was frightened at the time. (tells when)
The birds flew over the house. (tells where) The ball rolled across the floor. Charlie was annoyed beyond belief. He buried the thought deep in his mind. Adverbial Phrases An adverbial phrase may either follow the word it modifies or be located elsewhere in the sentence. Often, two adverbs in different parts of a sentence can modify the same word.
A village flooded during the storm. During the storm, a village flooded. After dinner we all gathered in the living room. Appositives & Appositive Phrases An appositive is a group of words that identifies, renames, or explains a noun or pronoun. Using an appositive is an
easy way to give additional information about a noun or pronoun. Appositives & Appositive Phrases Some villagers, the old-timers, prefer to travel the dirt roads. The home team, the Cougars, won the season title. As the examples show, appositives usually come right after the words they explain and are set off by punctuation. These
appositives are nonessential, meaning that they can be removed from the sentence without changing the meaning of the sentence. Appositives Some appositives are essential and are not set off by punctuation because they are important to the meaning of the sentence. The artist Monet was a French painter. (The appositive is essential because it identifies which specific artist.)
My brother Hermando is a graceful dancer. (The appositive is essential because you might have several brothers.) Appositive Phrases More examples of appositive phrases Mrs. Maldonado, my English teacher, assigned an essay. Fred explained numismatics, the hobby of coin collecting.
Ernest Hemingway, a famous author, wrote in a terse style. The chef prepared lasagna, an Italian dish. I brought my brother, a boy of six, a souvenir from my Gerunds & Gerund Phrases A gerund is a form of a verb that ends in ing and acts as a noun. A gerund phrase consists of a gerund an one or more modifiers.
These phrases act together as a noun. Gerunds Skiing is my favorite pastime. The French people make visiting France a pleasure. Mr. Mendozas lecture gave traveling a new dimension. My dads favorite activity is fishing. His dog showed signs of careful training.
Bradys profession, advertising, is very competitive. Note all gerunds function as a noun in the sentencenot a verb!!!! Gerunds Kevin is yawning at his desk. (verb note helping verb) The yawning boy was very tired. (participle) Yawning is contagious. (gerund) My sister was sighing, and that upset me. helping verb)
Sighing, my sister upset me. (participle) My sisters sighing upset me. (gerund) (verb Gerund Phrases Solo flying is not for beginners. Answering quickly is not always a good idea. Many places in the city prohibit walking on the grass. Pete was incapable of reciting the poem.
The algebra teacher tried giving her students praise. Note gerund phrases contain the gerund and its modifiers. Infinitives An infinitive is a form of a verb that generally appears with the word to in front of it and acts as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb.
Infinitives To understand life requires maturity and acceptance. (noun) The peasants decided to rebel. (noun)
The soldiers only hope was to surrender. (noun) I have no goal except to finish school. (noun) You have only one choice, to stay. (noun) The children showed a willingness to cooperate. (adjective) Some people were unable to fight. (adverb) Participle Phrases The most common kinds of participles are present participles and past participles. The two participles can be
distinguished from one another by their endings. Present participles usually end in ing (frightening, entertaining) Past participles usually end in ed (frightened, entertained), but many have irregular endings, such as t or en (burnt, written). Participle Phrases The limping hiker favored his aching ankle. (present) Irmas shining eyes betrayed her excitement. (present)
Confused, Nan returned to her interrupted work. (past) The shattered window needs replacement. (past) A participle is a form of a verb that can act as an adjective. Participle Phrases REMEMBER a verb shows an action, a condition, or the fact that something exists. A participle acting as an adjective modifies a noun or pronoun.
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