PHENOMENOLOG Y Consciousness is known through the world, and at the same time, the world is known through consciousness (Kung, 1980, p. 145). PHILOSOPHICAL ORIGIN Husserl: a way of returning to and exploring
the reality of life and living (Tuohy, et al., 2013). PHENOMENOL GY The objective of descriptive phenomenology is to describe a phenomenons general characteristics rather than the individuals experiences to determine the meaning or essence of the phenomenon (Giorgi, 2008; Crotty, 1996)
The objective of descriptive phenomenology is to describe things as they appear to consciousness. Consciousness is the medium between people and world (Moran, 2000; Giorgi, 2005) BRACKETI NG is the suspension of the researchers own preconceptions, beliefs or prejudices so that they do not influence the interpretation of the respondents experience (Parahoo,
2006). Question to consider: Is this suspension actually possible? INTERPRETIVE PHENOMENOLOG Y Hermeneutics is to describe, understand, and interpret participants experiences. Dasein: being-in-the-world we are already embedded in
a world of meaning. Being human is a situated activity, a situation in which things are encountered and managed. (Reed & Ground, 1997) COCONSTITUTIONAL ITY Meanings are a blend of participants and researchers meaning (Flood, 2010) Do you see any problems/benefits with this?
Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) IPAs focus on gaining a more in-depth and richer understanding of the participants experiences makes it a versatile tool. While the participant is trying to make sense of the world around them, the researcher is trying to make sense of the participant trying to make sense
of the world around them (Roberts, 2013). LIFE-WORLD EXISTENTIAL THEMES Lived space felt space the space in which we are located (spatiality) Lived time subjective time, as opposed to clock time (temporality) Lived body we are always in our body (corporeality)
Lived human relation how we communally experience the world (communality) HERMENEUTIC CIRCLE the circular process of continuous reexamination of propositions (Rapport & Wainwright, 2006)
EXAMPLE OF METHODOLOGY Question: How does a womans sense of identity change during motherhood? Small sample size a large sample size can overwhelm the researcher with data (Roberts, 2013) A purposive homogenous sample is necessary so that themes can be realized from certain groups of people who have shared particular experiences.
Data collection & analysis Gudmannsdottir, G., & Halldorsdottir, S. (2009). Primacy of existential pain and suffering in residents in chronic pain in nursing homes: a phenomenological study. Scandinavian Journal Of Caring Sciences, 23(2), 317-327 11p. doi:10.1111/j.1471-6712.2008.00625.x RIGOU R
Can be achieved in a research study by demonstrating transparency in the research process and be open to external audit, confirming credibility (Smith, et al., 2009) To ensure the trustworthiness of the study, that qualitative research represents truth, researchers should engage in reflexivity, which entails adopting self-awareness to potential biases (Kingdon, 2005) PHENOMENOGRAP
HY The empirical study of the limited number of qualitatively different ways in which we experience, conceptualise, understand, perceive, apprehend various phenomena in and aspects of the world around us (Marton, 1994). A final note on generalizability A phenomenological description is always
one interpretation, and no single interpretation of human experience will ever exhaust the possibility of yet another complementary, or even potentially richer, description (van Manen, 1984, p. 40) PROVOCATIVE QUESTIONS Do you think bracketing is possible? Have you ever experienced the ability to suspend your beliefs/preconceptions?
Do you see any problems/benefits with the idea of co-constitutionality that researchers help build meaning for research participants? How does being online shift, expand, transform the concepts of lived space, time, body and human relationships? What issues arise from the use of small, homogenous sample sizes? The dilemma of false consciousness there is also the possibility that those actors might be falsely conscious
and that sociologists have an obligation to see an objective perspective which is not necessarily that of any of the participating actors at all (Cohen, Manion & Morrison, 2011, pp. 20-21). What are the implications good and bad that people may have a false consciousness? If people do have a false consciousness, what are some of the extreme research implications of this? If we say it is impossible for people to have a false consciousness, what are some of the research implications?
References Adams, C. & Yin, Y. (2014). Undergraduate students experiences of time in MOOC: A term of Dino 101. 11th International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in a Digital Age (CELDA 2014). 225-230. Crotty, M. (1996). Phenomenology and Nursing Research. Melbourne: Churchill Livingstone. Gudmannsdottir, G., & Halldorsdottir, S. (2009). Primacy of existential pain and suffering in residents in chronic pain in nursing homes: a phenomenological study. Scandinavian Journal Of Caring Sciences, 23(2), 317-327 11p. doi:10.1111/j.1471-6712.2008.00625.x
Rapport, F., & Wainwright, P. (2006). Phenomenology as a paradigm of movement. Nursing Inquiry, 13(3), 228-236. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1800.2006.00325.x Reed, J. & Ground, I. (1996). Philosophy for Nursing. London: Arnold. Roberts, T. (2013). Understanding the research methodology of interpretative phenomenological analysis. British Journal Of Midwifery, 21(3), 215-218. Tuohy, D., Cooney, A., Dowling, M., Murphy, K., & Sixsmith, J. (2013). An overview of interpretive phenomenology as a research methodology. Nurse Researcher, 20(6), 17-20. Trigwell, K., & Prosser, M. (2004). Development and Use of the Approaches to Teaching Inventory. Educational Psychology Review, 16(4), 409-424. doi:10.1007/s10648-004-0007-9
Van Manen, M. (1984). Practicing phenomenological writing. Phenomenology and pedagogy. 2(1), 3669. Retrieved from https://ejournals.library.ualberta.ca/index.php/pandp/issue/view/1044
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