Phân Tích Thiết Kế Hệ Thống Thông Tin

Phân Tích Thiết Kế Hệ Thống Thông Tin

PHN TCH THIT K H THNG THNG TIN GV: ThS Tng M Tho Email: [email protected] 1 Gii thiu mn hc L thuyt: 45 tit Thc hnh, n: 45 tit 2 Ni dung Chng 1 - Tng quan v phn tch thit k HTTT Chng 2 Xc nh v phn tch yu cu Chng 3 Phn tch v thit k thnh phn d liu

Chng 4 - Phn tch v thit k thnh phn x l Chng 5 Thit k thnh phn giao din Chng 6 Trin khai v bo tr HTTT 3 Thc hnh Thc hin n mn hc: Xy dng m hnh d liu ERD dng PowerDesigner. Qun l CSDL vi SQL Server, MySQL. Ngn ng lp trnh ty chn: C++, C#, Java, 4 Hnh thc kim tra v nh gi Bo co seminar: 10% (Bo co nhm) Thi gia k: 20% Cui k: 70% ( n nhm) 5 Ti liu tham kho [1] James A. Senn, Analysis and Design of Information Systems, Mc Graw Hill, New York, 1989.

[2] PGS. TS ng Th Bch Thy, Bi ging mn phn tch v thit k HTTT , i hc KHTN-TPHCM. [3] PGS. TS Trn Thnh Trai, Phn tch v thit k h thng thng tin qun l, Nh xut bn tr. [4] ThS Hunh Ngc Tn, Gio trnh Phn tch v Thit k HTTT, Nh xut bn HQG TpHCM, 2004. 6 Chng 1 TNG QUAN V PHN TCH V THIT K HTTT 7 Chng 1 - Tng quan v HTTT

H thng H thng t chc H thng qun l Thng tin H thng thng tin Phn tch thit k h thng Vai tr - Yu cu i vi mt phn tch vin Tip cn xy dng HTTT M hnh v cc phng php m hnh ha 8 H thng H thng l tp hp cc yu t, thnh phn, n v cng loi hoc cng chc nng c quan h hoc lin h cht ch vi nhau lm thnh mt th thng nht, nhm t n nhng mc ch xc nh. H thng cn l tp hp nhng t tng nhng nguyn tc, quy tc lin kt vi nhau mt cch logic lm thnh mt th thng nht. Vd: H thng t tng, h thng cc quy tc ng php, h

thng ng st, h thng tn hiu giao thng, Trong mt h thng, mi thnh phn c th c nhng chc nng ring nhng khi kt hp li chng c nhng chc nng c bit. 9 Cu to ca H thng Mi trng (environment) Gii hn (boundary) Thnh phn (component) Lin h gia cc thnh phn Mc ch (purpose) Giao din (interface) u vo (input) u ra (output) Rng buc (constraints) u vo Giao din

Lin h gia cc thnh phn Thnh phn Gii hn u ra 10 H thng (v d) Xem i l bng a ABC nh mt h thng Mi trng: khch hng, nh cung cp, ngn hng, u vo: Bng a, tin mt, lao ng, ti sn,

. Kho Phng kinh doanh Vn phng u ra: Bng a, tin mt, bng gi, ha n, Gii hn 11 H thng (v d) Xem my chi nhc CD nh mt h thng CD Xc lp

iu khin Thnh phn c tn hiu Thnh phn khuch i tn hiu Thnh phn iu khin tn hiu Thnh phn chuyn i tn hiu m nhc H thng chi nhc CD 12

Cc b phn ca h thng thu thp thng tin, d liu; lutrung tr v Mi x l thng tin, truyn tin xc nh mc tiu hot ng, a ra quyt nh quan trng, tc ng n s tn ti v pht trin ca t chc. B phn Q Thng tin ra Thng tin vo B phn qun l thc hin vt l hot ng ca t chc (trc tip sn

xut, thc hin dch v) da trn mc tiu v phng hng c ra bi b phn quyt nh B phn tc v 13 H thng t chc L h thng nm trong bi cnh mi trng kinh t x hi, bao gm cc thnh phn c t chc kt hp vi nhau hot ng nhm t n mt mc tiu kinh t, x hi. Trong trng hp ny c gi l h thng t chc kinh t x hi. Mc tiu Mc tiu li nhun t ra trong cc hot ng kinh doanh. V d: bn hng, sn xut, Mc tiu phi li nhun t ra trong cc hot ng x hi. V d: hot ng t thin, y t, c im chung: do con ngi to ra v c s tham

gia ca con ngi. 14 H thng t chc Cc loi h thng t chc: 3 loi Hnh chnh s nghip Mc tiu: phi li nhun, phc v cho iu hnh nh nc v nhn dn. V d: y ban nhn dn, hi ng nhn dn, mt trn, X hi Mc tiu: phi li nhun, cc dch v ca t chc nhm tr gip v tinh thn, vt cht cho con ngi V d: t thin (UNICEP), y t, gio dc, Kinh t Mc tiu: li nhun, hiu qu kinh t. To ra gi tr hng ha, dch v phc v cho i sng con ngi. V d: sn xut sn phm, bn hng, xut nhp khu, ngn hng, vn chuyn, in thoi, 15 Mi trng h thng t chc

L nhng thnh phn bn ngoi t chc tc ng ln t chc nhm cung cp u vo cng nh nhn cc u ra ca t chc nh l hng ha, nguyn vt liu, thng tin, Mi trng kinh t: khch hng, nh cung ng, ngn hng, Mi trng x hi: nh nc, cng on, Mi trng hng ho Thng lng vo dch v tin Mi trng Bin i Thng lng ni b hng ho dch v tin Thng

lng ra 16 V d: i l bng a ABC Mi trng: khch hng, nh cung cp, ngn hng, u vo: Bng a, tin mt, nhn cng, ti sn, . Kho Phng kinh doanh Vn phng u ra: Bng a, tin mt,

bng gi, ha n, Gii hn 17 H thng qun l L b phn m nhn hot ng qun l ca t chc bao gm con ngi, phng tin, phng php v bin php kim tra nhm a hot ng ca t chc i ng mc tiu. (1): n t hng ca khch hng gi n b phn bn hng (2): n t hng c kim tra hp l gi cho vn phng theo di v kho chun b giao hng (3): Thng tin tn kho v s lng cn t p ng n hng (4): n t hng c lp v gi cho nh cung cp (5): Bng a giao t nh cung cp vo kho (6): Phiu nhp hng gi cho vn phng theo di (7): Thng bo cho phng kinh doanh tnh

trng tn kho hin hnh. (8): Bng a giao cho khch hng Gii hn Khch hng (8) (1) Phng kinh doanh (2) (4) Vn phng (2) (3) (7) (6)

(5) Nh cung cp Kho 18 Thng tin Thng tin l mt hay tp hp nhng phn t thng gi l cc tn hiu, phn nh ngha v mt i tng, hin tng hay mt qu trnh no ca s vt thng qua qu trnh nhn thc. Tn hiu c biu hin di nhiu dng khc nhau: ngn ng (ting ni, vn bn ch vit, ng tc), hnh nh, m thanh, mi v... c nhn bit thng qua cc c quan cm gic v qu trnh nhn thc. Ch th phn nh i tng tip nhn

19 Tnh cht thng tin Gi thnh (cost) v gi tr (value) Gi thnh (cost): Chi ph tr cho vic thu thp, lu tr, bin i, truyn cc thng tin c s cu thnh nn thng tin. Gi tr (value): ph thuc vo Bn cht thng tin. Tnh trung thc. Thi im. Mc him hoi. Gi thnh. S biu din thng tin. Ch th s dng thng tin.

20 Thng tin & d liu D liu X l d liu D liu mn hc D liu thi Tng hp d liu Thng tin Bng im tng hp D liu SV 21 Ni dung thng tin Thng tin t nhin Thng tin vit (vn bn), thng tin hnh nh (tranh nh, s

, biu ,), thng tin ming (li ni), thng tin m thanh, xc gic, Thng tin cu trc c chn lc t cc thng tin t nhin, c ng v c cu trc ha di dng cc c trng c th u im Truyn t nhanh hn, chnh xc v tin cy cao, chim t khng gian C th tnh ton, x l theo thut gii 22 H thng thng tin L h thng c t chc thng nht t trn xung di, c chc nng x l, phn tch, tng hp thng tin, gip cc nh qun l qun l tt c s ca mnh, tr gip ra quyt nh hot ng kinh doanh. L mt h thng qun l c phn thnh nhiu cp t trn xung di v chuyn t di ln trn. 23

Hot ng ca h thng thng tin i tng truy cp thng tin Truyn t thng tin Cc yu cu thng tin Chuyn thng tin Thng tin T chc, x l d liu Tham kho d liu Thu thp, iu chnh d liu Ngun thng tin d liu

bn ngoi Xc nh d liu cn thit D liu hot ng Thnh phn 24 Cc h thng thng tin HTTT tc v (TPSTransaction Processing Systems) HTTT qun l (MIS Management Information Systems) H h tr ra quyt nh (DSS Dicision Support Systems) H chuyn gia (ES - Expert Systems)

H ch o (EIS Executive Information System) HTTT-HTQ, HCG, HC HTTT-Qun l HTTT-Tc v 25 Cc h thng thng tin 26 Cc h thng thng tin HTTT qun l (MIS) -c im: bo biu bo co c tng kt t HTTT tc v -Mc ch: p ng cho vic theo di, qun l, nh gi v tnh hnh v hot ng ca h thng hin hnh. -i tng: trng, ph phng v lnh o ca HTTT tc v (TPS):

cc chi nhnh - c im: - Ghi nhn, tm kim, phn loi thng tin, sp xp v t chc lu tr thng tin - Chim mt t l ln trong ton b HTTT - Mc ch: tng tc x l -i tng: nhn vin b phn thc thi tc v ca h thng HTTT-HTQ, HCG, HC HTTT-Qun l HTTT-Tc v 27 Cc h thng thng tin HTTT ch o (EIS) - c im: cc nh lnh o cp cao nh ban gim c c th bt u vic khai thc d liu mc tng hp

cao ri i xung cc vng d liu chi titracquyt th theo(DSS) di hot ng ca H h tr nh -c im: tng(ES) nhnh v ca schi dng d liu qu ton kh b cng H chuyn gia theo yu cu nh tygi v tng cc tnh hung thay

-cim: th hocng tnh hung -Hat thng chn qua la hp trong thai tng tnglai tc -Mc tiu: cc nh qun -t ra cuTr higip ngi dng tr l li, c

c vo s kt quyt hotES ng da qu nh tr li, s cung - cp icc tng: cc l cp ngh danh voqun cc lut nh phn tchqun kinhl doanh, -icao, tng:

cc nh cp cao, nh phn tch kinh doanh HTTT-HTQ, HCG, HC HTTT-Qun l HTTT-Tc v 28 Cc h thng thng tin Loi h thng c im TPS

MIS DSS Phng php pht trin Dung lng lu tr ln, tp trung trn qun l d liu Mc tiu: hiu qu lun chuyn, x l d liu, giao tip vi cc TPS khc Tip cn hng x l Thu thp, kim tra tnh hp l, lu tr d liu, lun chuyn gia cc bc x l. Tng hp d liu t nhiu ngun khc nhau D bo d liu tng lai t cc d liu qu kh v tri thc nghip v -

Tip cn hng d liu Hiu mi quan h gia cc thnh phn d liu => truy cp, tng hp d liu theo nhiu cch khc nhau Xy dng mt m hnh d liu phc v nhiu mc ch s dng khc nhau. nh hng xc nh vn , tm kim v nh gi cc gii php, la chn v so snh cc gii php Lin quan n cc nhm hoc cc nh quyt nh Thng lin quan n cc vn phc tp v nhu cu truy cp d liu nhiu mc chi tit khc nhau Tip cn hng d liu v quyt nh lun l Thit k i thoi ngi dng Giao tip nhm Truy cp n d liu khng th d on trc i hi s pht trin theo vng lp v

c cp nht lin tc - 29 Cc h thng thng tin (v d) DSS MIS TPS 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

H tr nh gi kt qu hc tp ca sinh vin Bng im tng hp Phiu ng k HP East West North 1st Qtr Thng k kt qu hc tp im thi 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr

4th Qtr Bo co tnh hnh hc tp Bng im 30 Nhim v - vai tr ca HTTT Chc nng chnh ca HTTT l x l thng tin. Qu trnh x l thng tin ging nh mt hp en gm b x l, thng tin u vo (input), thng tin u ra (output) v thng tin phn hi ca h thng. Output Input Hp en (Black box) Phn hi (feed back) 31 Nhim v ca HTTT

i ngoi: o Thu nhn thng tin t mi trng ngoi o a thng tin ra ngoi. Th d nh thng tin v gi c, th trng,. sc lao ng, nhu cu hng ha, v.v i ni: o L cu ni lin lc gia cc b phn ca mt h kinh doanh. o H tr cho nhng h tc nghip, ra quyt nh cc thng tin gm hai loi nhm: - Phn nh tnh trng ni b ca doanh nghip, t chc trong h thng - Tnh trng hot ng kinh doanh ca h thng. 32 Vai tr ca HTTT L trung gian gia: Mi trng v h thng t chc H thng con quyt nh v h thng con tc nghip.

33 Biu din HTTT Khng gian biu din mt HTTT l mt khng gian ba chiu Cc mc nhn thc Quan nim T chc Vt l Cc thnh phn D liu X l Cc bc pht trin - K hoch CPU Con ngi truyn thng

-Nghin cu kh thi -. 34 Khng gian 3 mc nhn thc Mc quan nim: Biu din HTTT gc tru tng ha, biu din yu cu h thng c lp vi tin hc, k thut v phng tin vt l, ngn ng th hin l ngn ng phi tin hc Cu hi chnh l ci g? Mc t chc (logic): Xc nh s phn b d liu v x l trn cc b x l v s truyn thng gia cc b phn, x l Cu hi chnh l Ai? u? Bao gi? Mc vt l:

Biu din HTTT trong mt mi trng c th Gn lin vi thit b phn cng, phn mm, , k thut v phng tin vt l. Gn lin vi kin trc tin hc + Kin trc client-server. + Kin trc phn tn. + Kin trc tng hp (lai). Cu hi chnh l nh th no? Ngn ng th hin mc vt l l ngn ng tin hc. 35 Trnh t m hnh ho HTTT Yu cu HTTT mi T chc Vt l Cc mc nhn thc Quan nim H thng quan nim (lun l) hin ti

H thng quan nim (lun l) mi H thng vt l hin ti H thng vt l mi 36 5 thnh phn HTTT D liu: biu din kha cnh tnh ca HTTT, gm 2 loi: D liu tnh: t bin i trong qu trnh sng Thi gian sng di V d: hng ha, danh sch phng ban, cc quy nh, ti sn, D liu ng: Phn nh cc giao tc hat ng kinh doanh, dch v Thi gian sng ngn v thng xuyn bin i V d: n t hng, ha n, giao hng, thu chi, sn xut,

37 5 thnh phn HTTT X l To thng tin Sn xut Bin i thng tin Cp nht Lai b thng tin Vn chuyn 38 Tng tc gia d liu v x l D liu tnh

D liu ng TT, DL khai thc TT, DL thu thp TT, DL khai thc TT, DL lu X l Ngun cung cp TT, DL thu thp t bn ngoi TT chuyn giao Ngun khai

thc 39 5 thnh phn ca HTTT Con ngi Nhm ngi dng: s dng v khai thc h thng, cc yu cu: Hiu qui tc x l v vai tr ca mnh trong HTTT C nhng kin thc cn bn v tin hc Phi hp tt vi nhm pht trin xy dng h thng Nhm iu hnh v pht trin: bao gm cc phn tch vin, thit k vin, lp trnh vin,c vai tr trong vic xy dng v bo tr h thng B x l: my mc thit b dng t ng ha x l thng tin 40 5 thnh phn ca HTTT Truyn thng: phng tin v cch thc trao i thng tin gia cc b x l. in thoi, fax, LAN, WAN, internet,

Internet Modem Server PC LAN Kho Van phong PC Phong ban hang PC Printer 41 Cc bc pht trin HTTT B1 - K hoch ha B2 - Nghin cu kh thi, kho st hin trng

B3 - Hp ng trch nhim B4 - Phn tch, thit k B5 - Lp trnh B6 - Th nghim B7 - Trin khai B8 - Bo tr, thch ng 42 Cc mc nhn thc Cc thnh phn Mc nhn thc Vt l T chc Quan nim - Cu trc vt l CSDL (h DBMS) - H thng phn mm

(thit k lp trnh) - Lp trnh vin -Chuyn vin HTTT -i tng khai thc - Cu hnh c th, hiu, model, - Cu hnh mng c th (giao thc, ..) - M hnh Quan h. Phn b d liu cho cc b x l (cch nhn view). - M hnh t chc x l (Th cng, my tnh)

-Chuyn vin HTTT (phn tch + thit k) -i tng khai thc -Ngi c quyn quyt nh -Ngi quyt nh phi hp - Kin trc phn cng - S Servers, cng sut - S Client, cng sut - Thit b ngoi v, - Kin trc, chng loi mng (qui m, tnh nng, kin trc, )

- M hnh quan nim DL (m hnh thc th kt hp, thc th kt hp m rng, m hnh i tng) - M hnh quan nim x l (DFD, Merise) - Ngi t chc - Ngi SD - Chuyn vin HTTT D liu X l Con ngi B x l

Truyn Cc thnh phn thng 43 Cc mc nhn thc Cc bc pht trin Cc mc nhn thc Vt l T chc Quan nim Mc nhn thc KHH KSHT HTN PTTK

LT TN TK BT Cc bc pht trin. 44 Cc bc pht trin Cc thnh phn Cc thnh phn HTTT Truyn thng B x l Con ngi X l Cc bc pht trin.

D Liu KHH KSHTNCKT HDTN PTTK LT TN BT Cc bc pht trin 45 Chng 1 - Tng quan v HTTT H thng H thng t chc H thng qun l Thng tin

H thng thng tin Phn tch thit k h thng Vai tr - Yu cu i vi mt phn tch vin Tip cn xy dng HTTT M hnh v cc phng php m hnh ha 46 Phn tch thit k h thng Nhm pht trin h thng mt cch c t chc Mc tiu: Pht trin h thng Xy dng phn mm ng dng o to nhn vin s dng phn mm ng dng 47 Vai tr ca mt PTV L cha kha trong quy trnh pht trin HTTT Nghin cu cc vn v cc nhu cu cn thit ca t chc Gip ngi s dng nh ngha nhng yu cu mi, lm tng kh nng cung cp cc dch v thng tin. Thu thp thng tin L cu ni, trung gian gia cc i tng tham gia

xy dng HTTT Thng l ngi lnh o d n 48 Yu cu i vi mt PTV K nng phn tch Hiu c t chc v cc hot ng ca t chc Nhn ra cc c hi v cc vn thch thc ca t chc Kin thc v nghip v h thng Kh nng xc nh vn , nm bt v hiu thu o nhng yu cu ca ngi s dng Kh nng phn tch v gii quyt vn Li t duy h thng: tip cn i tng mt cch ton cc ri phn r thnh cc vn con

49 Yu cu i vi mt PTV K nng k thut: Kin thc v k thut my tnh Hiu r tim nng v hn ch ca CNTT, phn cng, phn mm v cc cng c lin quan Nm vng cc ngn ng lp trnh trn nn cc HH v cc phn cng khc nhau Kh nng ng dng thnh tu cng ngh thng tin vo gii quyt nhng vn thc t. 50 Yu cu i vi mt PTV K nng qun l: Qun l ti nguyn: qun l v s dng hiu qu

o o o o o o D on ti nguyn s dng (ngn sch) Theo di v tnh ton ti nguyn tiu th S dng ti nguyn mt cch hiu qu nh gi cht lng ti nguyn s dng Bo m an ton, trnh lm dng ti nguyn Thanh l nhng ti nguyn khng cn thit v qu hn Qun l d n Qun l ri ro: kh nng d on, pht hin cc ri ro ca d n v kh nng gim thiu cc ri ro Qun l nhng thay i trong yu cu h thng 51 Cc yu cu ca mt phn tch vin h thng

K nng giao tip K nng trao i Phng vn, lng nghe, t cu hi K nng vit tt Trnh by vn mch lc, r rng qua vn bn, qua bui gii thiu vi cc thnh vin, hi tho, Lm vic c lp hoc theo nhm Qun l nh hng ca h thng 52 Chng 1 - Tng quan v HTTT H thng H thng t chc H thng qun l Thng tin H thng thng tin

Phn tch thit k h thng Vai tr - Yu cu i vi mt phn tch vin Tip cn xy dng HTTT M hnh v cc phng php m hnh ha 53 Chu trnh pht trin h thng Chu trnh pht trin h thng SDLC (Systems Development Life Cycle): bao gm nhiu giai on t khi bt u d n h thng cho n khi kt thc khai thc h thng Cc giai on trong chu trnh c th thay i ty theo tng n v (trong khong t 3 20 giai on) Vic pht trin t ng ha HTTT bao gm 2 khi nim: Qui trnh pht trin: cc giai on, trnh t giai on pht trin h thng M hnh: cc phng tin biu din ni dung ca h thng thng qua cc giai on ca tin trnh 54 Qui trnh v m hnh pht trin HTTT Tin trnh Giai on 1

M Mhnh hnh Giai on 2 M Mhnh hnh Giai on n M Mhnh hnh M hnh 55 Tip cn xy dng HTTT C 2 cch tip cn

Tip cn hng chc nng Tip cn hng i tng Cc quy trnh pht trin h thng Quy trnh thc nc Quy trnh tng trng Quy trnh xon c Quy trnh pht trin nhanh (RAD) Quy trnh lp rp thnh phn Quy trnh ng nht ca Rational (RUP) 56 Qui trnh pht trin h thng Qui trnh thc nc (waterfall- Royce, 1970) Xc nh yu cu Kho st

d liu, x l d liu, x l, giao din Phn tch Thit k d liu, x l, giao din Ci t, kim th Bo tr 57 Quy trnh pht trin h thng Cc tnh cht Tnh tun t: th t giai on c thc hin t trn xung, kt qu ca giai on trc s l u vo cho giai on sau Tnh lp: mi giai on c th quay tr lui ti cc giai on trc nu cn thit cho n khi kt qu ca n c chp nhn Tnh song song: nhiu hot ng trong mt giai on c th c thc hin song song vi cc hot

ng ca giai on khc 58 Cc giai on Giai on kho st Tm hiu thc t Nm bt nhng yu cu ca ngi s dng Lp k hoch trin khai. i tng tham gia: Nhng ngi chu trch nhim trin khai HTTT (pha khch hng). Nhm qun l d n (pha cng ty pht trin) Nhn vin nghip v (ngi s dng). Chuyn vin tin hc (ngi kho st) 59 Cc giai on Giai on phn tch M t li thc t thuc phm vi ng dng HTTT mc

quan nim, cu trc ha yu cu Thnh phn d liu Thnh phn x l Pht sinh cc phng n v la chn phng n kh thi nht Giai on phn tch c lp vi mi trng ci t ng dng HTTT i tng tham gia Nhn vin nghip v (ngi s dng) Chuyn vin tin hc (chuyn vin phn tch, thit k) Nhm qun l d n (t chc, k hoch ha, ) 60 Cc giai on Giai on thit k M hnh ha thnh phn d liu v x l mc Thit k lun l (t chc logic ) o Thit k d liu o Thit k kin trc o Thit k giao din Thit k vt l: chuyn i thit k lun l sang cc c t phn cng, phn mm, k thut c chn ci t h thng

Lin quan n vic s dng mt s cng c tin hc h tr cho chuyn vin tin hc trong qu trnh thit k i tng tham gia: Nhm qun l d n Chuyn vin tin hc (chuyn vin phn tch, thit k) 61 Cc giai on Giai on ci t, th nghim Lp trnh h thng Kim tra nhng chc nng, phn h, s kt hp ca nhng phn h khc nhau, tng th c h thng thng tin Th nghim Xy dng ti liu h thng: ti liu c t h thng, ti liu s dng, ti liu k thut ci t Hun luyn s dng i tng tham gia: Nhm qun l d n Chuyn vin tin hc (Lp trnh vin, nhn vin kim tra chng trnh, ..) 62 Cc giai on

Giai on khai thc, bo tr m bo duy tr hot ng n nh ca h thng thng tin tin hc ha Sa cc li pht sinh trong qu trnh s dng iu chnh nhng thay i sao cho ph hp vi cc thay i h thng B sung, nng cp h thng mi i tng tham gia: Nhm qun l d n. Nhng ngi khai thc. Chuyn vin tin hc (Lp trnh vin, chuyn vin phn tch, thit k, nhn vin kim tra, ..). 63 Chng 1 - Tng quan v HTTT H thng H thng t chc H thng qun l Thng tin H thng thng tin Phn tch thit k h thng Vai tr - Yu cu i vi mt phn tch vin Tip cn xy dng HTTT M hnh v cc phng php m hnh ha

64 M hnh v cc phng php m hnh ha M hnh Phng php m hnh ho Lch s pht trin cc phng php Mt s m hnh tiu biu 65 M hnh L tp hp cc phn t thng c dng trong php tng ng vi nhng lp cc i tng, cc quan h, v nhng qu trnh x l no trong lnh vc cn m t c mt s biu din c ng, tng qut, c ngha, n gin v d hiu. 66

Phng php m hnh ha Phng php m hnh ha HTTT (cn gi l phng php phn tch thit k) c nh ngha l tp hp cc quy tc v th t khi thc hin vic chuyn i mt HTTT sang HTTT t ng ha. 67 M hnh v cc phng php m hnh ha M hnh Phng php m hnh ho Lch s pht trin cc phng php Mt s m hnh tiu biu 68 Mt s m hnh tiu biu M hnh t chc M hnh dng d liu M hnh M hnh ng

M hnh d liu M hnh i tng 69 M hnh t chc M hnh phn cp chc nng: phn r mt chc nng tng hp thnh nhng chc nng chi tit hn. V d: biu din cc chc nng ca h thng i l bng a ABC Chc nng H qun l ca hng Kinh doanh Bn l Qun l n hng K ton

Qun l cng n Qun l nhp hng Quan h bao hm Qun l tn kho Qun l xut Bo co tn 70 M hnh t chc M hnh lun chuyn (h thng) V d:

biu din qu trnh x l t hng ca i l bng a ABC Khch hng B phn bn hng Kho Vn phng t mua bng a hng hng khng hp l Kim tra n

hng hng hp l Kim tn kho Tn kho Ln k hoch giao Danh sch tn kho Lu n hng CSDL hng Lp phiu giao hng

Phiu giao hng Phiu giao hng Lu phiu giao hng Ghi nhn tn kho mi 71 M hnh dng d liu M hnh tng tc thng tin V d: M hnh tng tc t hng i l bng a ABC n t hng Khch hng Phng bn hng n t hng

Thng tin giao hng hng b t chi Thng tin giao hng n t hng Tn kho Kho Vn phng Tc nhn Dng d liu, thng tin 72 M hnh dng d liu M hnh dng d liu (DFD) V d: Biu din m hnh DFD ca x l t hng ca ca hng NGK

n t hng Kim tra hng H hp l Lu hng H mi n t hng Khch hng H khng hp l H b t chi Bng a giao + ha n Thng bo t

chi hng hng X l Dng d liu u cui Kho d liu Tnh tn kho Thng tin tn kho Tn kho bng a H hng giao Lp ha n giao hng Ha n giao hng Ho n giao hng 73

M hnh ng M hnh mng Petri-net V d: cc trng thi ca mt n t hng t hng Ln lch giao hng ln lch hng mi Thanh ton thanh ton Giao hng Trng thi giao Bin c

Trng thi hin hnh 74 M hnh ng M hnh trng thi V d: trng thi mt n t hng t hng Trng thi khi to Chp nhn t hng hng mi Hp l Trng thi kt thc Trng thi T chi do khng hp l Ln lch giao

B t chi Bin c ln lch giao 1 thng Thanh ton thanh ton Giao hng 2 nm giao 75 M hnh ng M hnh x l Merise V d: biu din x l ca mt n t hng t hng Kim tra n hng c

Thanh ton n hng(a) Ln lch giao hng (b) Khng T chi n hng Bin c a v b ng b Giao hng Lun lun n hng giao Hnh ng

76 M hnh d liu M hnh quan h BANGDIA(MA_BD, TEN_BD, LOAI, DVTINH, DON_GIA) HANG_NGK(SO_DDH, NGAY_DAT, KHACH_HANG, NGAYGIAO, TRANG THAI) CHITIET_DDH(MA_BD, SO_DDH, SL_DAT, DONGIA_DAT) Cu trc c bn QUAN_H1 (THUC TNH KHA1, THUC TNH, ) QUAN_H2 (THUC TNH KHA2, THUC TNH KHA NGOI,) 77 M hnh d liu M hnh mng BANGDIA LOAI_BD

Loi thc th Lin kt 1-1 CHITIET_DDH HANG KHCH_HANG 78 M hnh d liu M hnh thc th - kt hp (1,1) BANGDIA THUC (0,n) LOI_BD

(0,n) T (1,n) HNG_BD Thc th (1,1) CA (1,n) KHCH_HNG Mi kt hp 79 M hnh i tng M hnh i tng theo OOA n i tc M s

H tn a ch in thoi BANGDIA M s Tn VT n gi Lp & i tng Kt hp 1 n n BD t Nh cung ng Phng thc thanh ton S lng t n gi Tr gi()

Khch hng Cng n ti a Tng qut ho (IS A) Thnh phn (Is Part - Of) Tr gi t hng() 1 Hng n M s Ngy t Ngy giao Tng tr gi Tnh tr gia hng()

Thng ip (Message) 80 UML (Unified Modeling Language) :Class A Class A Class diagram Object diagram 3 Class B b1:Class B : Class A b2:Class B

: Class B b3:Class B : Class C Message 1 Message 2 Message 3 Sequence diagram Message 4 81 THNG TIN THAM CHIU 82 Cc qui trnh pht trin h thng Qui trnh tng trng (D. R. Grahma, 1989 )

Hon thnh tng thnh phn ca h thng Mi bc tng trng p dng qui trnh tuyn tnh xy dng hon thnh mt phn ca h thng Nhc im:ch ph hp cho nhng h thng c s phn chia r rng v chuyn giao theo tng phn Tng trng 1 Phn tch Thit k Lp trnh Th nghim Chuyn giao phn 1 Tng trng 2 Phn tch Thit k Lp trnh Th nghim Chuyn giao phn 2 Tng trng 3

Phn tch Thit k Lp trnh Th nghim Chuyn giao phn 3 83 Cc qui trnh pht trin h thng Qui trnh xon c (Boehm, 1988 ) Mt c im quan trng ca qui trnh ny l nhn mnh vic qun l ri ro Da trn khi nim chu trnh pht trin, qui trnh ny l cc chu trnh lp Xc nh mc tiu, cc phng n, cc rng buc Chu trnh 3 nh gi cc phng n

Chu trnh 2 Chu trnh 1 Lp k hoch cho chi trnh k tip Pht trin v kim tra 84 Cc qui trnh pht trin h thng Qui trnh pht trin nhanh (RAD Rapid Development Application - James Martin, 1991) Ngi pht trin h thng v cc ngi s dng h thng s lm vic kt hp cht ch vi nhau Khng phi l mt phng php lun ring l m l mt chin lc chung pht trin HTTT, c nhng c im

sau: S dng cc cng c phn mm v cc mi trng pht trin trc quan biu din ti a cc kt qu t c y nhanh vic phn tch vn , thit k mt gii php h thng L mt qu trnh lp thay i v iu chnh 85 Cc qui trnh pht trin h thng Qui trnh pht trin nhanh do James martin xut, 1991 Xc lp yu cu (Requirements planning) Thit k (User design) Xy dng (Construction)

Chuyn giao (Cutover) 86 Cc qui trnh pht trin h thng Qui trnh lp rp thnh phn (component) Da trn vic ti s dng thnh phn phn mm c sn Pht trin mt phn mm c thc hin bng cch tp hp li cc thnh phn c sn L mt quy trnh lp, mi chu trnh gm 4 giai on Xc nh mc tiu, cc phng n, cc rng buc: Nhn thc, hnh thnh, tm kim gii php Chu trnh 3 nh gi cc phng n, thnh phn Chu trnh 2 Chu trnh 1

Lp k hoch cho chi trnh k tip: nh gi, tuyn chn Pht trin v kim tra: B sung, iu chnh v tch hp thnh phn 87 Cc qui trnh pht trin h thng Qui trnh ng nht ca Rational (RUP Rational Unified Process) Mt vng lp trong giai on construction 88

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