Ottoman Empire The Modern Era (1750-1900) Remember the Ottomans? Conquered Constantinople in 1453: Istanbul
Golden Age under Suleyman Magnificent in mid 16th c. Janissaries Blend Byzantine, Arab, & Persian styles Dominate overland trade routes The Acorn . . . specifics 5.1 Industrialization and Global Capitalism Iv. There were major developments in transportation and communication including railroads, steamships, telegraphs and canals. V. The development and spread of global capitalism led to a variety of responses. C. In a small number of states, governments promoted their own state-sponsored visions of industrialization. (such as the economic reforms of Meiji Japan, the development of factories and railroads in Tsarist Russia, Chinas SelfStrengthening program or Muhammad Alis development of a cotton textile industry in Egypt)
5.2 Imperialism and Nation-State Formation II. Imperialism influenced state formation and contraction around the world. C. Anti-imperial resistance led to the contraction of the Ottoman Empire. (such as the establishment of independent states in the Balkans, semi-independence in Egypt. French and Italian colonies in North Africa or later British influence in Egypt) 5.3 Nationalism, Revolution, and Reform III. Increasing discontent with imperial rule and the spread of Enlightenment ideas propelled reformist and revolutionary movements. F. Responses to increasingly frequent rebellions led to reforms in imperial policies. (such as the Tanzimat movement . . .) Ottoman Empire at beginning of
Modern Era Ottoman Decline (18th & 19th c.): the Sick Man of Europe Government corruption, ineptitude, series of assassinations Competition from European products & usurpation of trade routes by Europeans led to economic decline
Intellectual stagnation Challenges to the Ottoman Empire The West: Napoleon invaded Muslim heartland of Egypt in 1798 & quickly conquered weak Ottoman Egyptian forces. He was only expelled because of British aid/alliance. Decentralization: As the empire decayed, regional forces from within the Empire began to emerge.
Inspired by Enlightenment ideas & nationalistic fervor, Christian regions of the Balkans rebelled with European encouragement & achieved independence. Muhammad Ali strengthens & separates Egypt Greek War for Independence: 1821-1832 Crimean War: 1854-1856
Otto, FR, & Brit v. Russia Origins: Russian expansionism & conflict over holy lands Used railways & telegraphs and female nurses Ended with agreement to respect Ottomans independence & territorial integrity --keep The sick man of Europe around
Muhammad Ali Father of Modern Egypt Ottoman sultan appointed him as governor (pasha) over Egypt in 1805. Instituted lots of reforms:
Land reform Tax system Euro-style bureaucracy Agricultural improvements led to LOTS of cotton production -Egypt became one of worlds largest cotton producers Modern printing press & education systems Military reformed along Euro lines Even tried to overthrow Ottomans but prevented by French & British --why would the French & British care/interfere??? British take over Egypt
When Muhammad Ali died in 1848, Egypt was most powerful state in Mid East, but it quickly declined. Completion of Suez Canal in 1869 made Egypt of vital strategic importance to the British as a link to their colonies in India & Africa. Modernization (including the canal) was expensive & Egypt had a LOT of foreign debt. After the US Civil War when world cotton market collapsed from overproduction, Egypt couldnt pay its international
debts . So, Britain took control of state finances & the Suez Canal. After putting down a nationalist uprising in 1882, Britain made Egypt a protectorate. The Suez Canal gives the lions share to the British with the key to India Tanzimat Reforms Increasing discontent and the spread of Enlightenment ideas propelled reformist and revolutionary movements (so says the Acorn) such as . . . . Tanzimat Reforms
mid 19th century attempts to modernize the Ottoman Empire, (army, education, legal reforms) Decrees guaranteed public trials, equality before the law regardless if Muslim or not etc Inspired by Enlightenment thought encouraged Ottomanism among the diverse ethnic groups, to stem the tide of nationalist movements within the Ottoman Empire. Demise of the Ottoman Empire
end of the 19th c, Ottomans remained as last independent Muslim state but weak. Reforms were too little, too late; opposed by Religious conservatives Early 20th c, group of liberals (Young Turks) deposed autocratic ruler & instituted more reforms. But they ended up supporting Germany & Austria-Hungary in WWI, & after the war the empire was broken up & occupied by foreign powers
From its ruins, a new Islamic state, the Republic of Turkey rose. The Young Turks Revolt: The Committee of1908 Union and Progress (CUP). Enver Pasha
Mehmet Talaat Grand Vizier, 1917-1918 Minister of War Ottoman Commanderin-Chief The Young Turks Program Pushed for reforms basic
democratic rights: freedom of speech. freedom of assembly. freedom of the press. Problem of nationalism within (heterogeneous empire). The Ottoman Empire in 1914 Varied Reaction to European Domination
Westernization: copy the social, political, economic, & military structure of West. Usually these reforms affected only educated elites & political change was superficial. Nationalism: which kind do you think?? Resistance: some hated Euro political & economic domination that often accompanied reform; lots of anti-Western riots & wars with European countries Islamic Fundamentalism: especially in Sudan as led by Mahdi in 1881.
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