Osmosis, Diffusion, Active Transport - Ms. brigance
OSMOSIS, DIFFUSION, ACTIVE TRANSPORT Brigance 2017 Diffusion, Osmosis and Concentration Gradient Diffusion
the movement of a substance from a high concentration to a low concentration Osmosis the movement of WATER from a high concentration to a low concentration. Concentration Gradient the difference
in concentration between a region of high concentration and a region of lower concentration Passive or Active Transport: Passive Transport - does not
require cell energy Examples: Diffusion, Facilitated diffusion and Osmosis Active
Transport Requires cell energy (ATP) Examples: Carrier mediated active transport, Endocytosis and Exocytosis Passive-Diffusion
Diffusion: the random movement of particles of a solute from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Particles
always move with (down) a concentration gradient (the difference in concentrations across a membrane). Accepts small or uncharged molecules (oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, water, urea, and glycerol).
animations Passive-Facilitated Diffusion Particles always move with (down) a
concentration gradient. Uses transport/channel proteins. Usually for specific molecules such as glucose. Facilitated diffusion
stops at equilibrium. Equilibrium Diffusion stops at equilibrium (when the concentrations across a membrane are equal). The movement of molecules continues at
equilibrium but the # of molecules moving across the membrane remains the same. The rate of transport is dependent on: 1) 2) 3) if the material is solid, liquid or gas. the size of the molecules.
temperature Examples of molecules that can diffuse through the bilayer: carbon dioxide, oxygen, water but very, very slowly.
Active transport Active Transport: requires energy in the form of ATP. Capable of moving solute particles (UP) against the
conc. gradient (from low conc. to high conc.) carrier proteins (protein pumps) embedded in the plasma membrane. Carrier proteins are specific for the molecules that they allow through. The carrier protein changes shape which requires energy (ATP). Accepts
Sodium and Potassium. Na+ and K+ through Sodium-Potassium Pumps. Active Transport against the concentration gradient This image represents:
a. Active Transport b. Diffusion
c. Facilitated Diffusion The three types of passive transport are diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and _____________.
Facilitated Diffusion uses __________ ______________ to carry molecules across membrane. T/F: Passive Transport requires energy. Name that term: When the
concentrations across the membrane are equal. Equilibrium is the goal of which method of transport? In which direction will the sugar molecules diffuse, left
or right? Active transports moves _______ the concentration gradient. Why does active transport require ATP?
Osmosis Osmosis: the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane. Passive transport
Water molecules move from a higher concentration OF WATER to a lower concentration OF WATER. Water will move to where there is a greater amount of solute because there is less water http://highered.mheducation.com/site theres/0072495855/student_view0/chapter
2/animation__how_osmosis_works.ht ml How does a healthy cell look? Isotonic Solution Isotonic
solutions: the concentration of solute and water inside and outside of the cell is the same. Isotonic: Water
in = Water out No net movement of water.
Molecules Normal cells. Cell in equilibrium.
state for animal in homeostasis. Hypotonic Solution Hypotonic
solutions: the concentration of solute is lower outside the cell than inside the cell. Have more water outside the cell so water moves into the cell Causes an increase in pressure inside the
cell: called turgor pressure (plants) or osmotic pressure (animals). Increase in pressure in animal cells causes them to swell or even burst; gives plant cells shape and support. Example Hypotonic Hypotonic:
Water enters cell. Cell swells and bursts (cytolysis). Give plant cells shape and support.
Hypertonic Solution Hypertonic solutions: the concentration of solute is higher outside the cell than inside the cell. Have more water inside the cell so
water moves out of the cell Causes a drop in turgor or osmotic pressure: called plasmolysis. Plasmolysis causes animal cells to shrivel up and plants to wilt. Hypertonic Example Hypertonic:
Water Cell exits cell. shrinks (plasmolysis) due to water loss.
The effects of osmotic pressure Now, draw three beakers. Show a cell in hypertonic, isotonic, and hypotonic solutions.
Beaker A Cell Beaker B Cell Beaker C Cell
Osmosis is the movement of water from ________ concentration to __________ concentration. The water will move to the (left, right)
A shriveled cell is said to have a(n) __________ solution. A. hypotonic B. isotonic C. hypertonic A swollen cell has a hypotonic solution because the amount of
water on the outside of the cell is (low, high) The effects of osmotic pressure in a plant cell
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