OSMOREGULAT ION AND EXCRETION Key Concepts Osmoregulation balances the uptake and loss of water and solutes An animals nitrogenous wastes reflect its phylogeny and habitat Diverse excretory systems are variations on a tubular theme Nephrons and associated blood vessels are the functional units of the mammalian kidney The mammalian kidneys ability to conserve
water is a key terrestrial adaptation Diverse adaptations of the vertebrate kidney Key Words homeostasis excretion uric acid filtration renal vein urethra nephron proximal tubule collecting duct efferent
Types of metabolic waste produced by living systems 1. 2. 3. Digestive waste (elimination) Respiratory waste Excess water and salts (osmoregulation ) Osmoregulation Balance of uptake and loss of water and solutes Controlled movement of solutes between internal
fluids and environment Osmoconformer (marine animals isoosmotic with environment) Osmoregulator (freshwater, marine, and terrestrial animals that adjust internal osmolarity) Types of nitrogenous wastes Deamination protein and nucleic acid metabolism Three main types differing in terms of: 1. 2.
3. Toxicity Amount of water needed for excretion Energy needed for synthesis 300 500 mL/gN 50 mL/gN 10 mL/gN Type of Organism Plants Structure Stomata, lenticels for Insoluble
gas exchange crystals No excretory organ Other features Crystals are kept inside plant cells Osmoconformers, isoosmotic with environment Cnidarians and echinoderms Freshwater protists, sponges Product of excretio n
Contractile vacuole Porocytes and flagella Excretory Systems Dispose of metabolic wastes Regulate solute concentrations in the body Transport epithelia arranged in tubes 4 major processes 1. 2. Filtration, pressure-filtering of body fluids producing a filtrate (water, salts, sugars, amino acids, N-wastes)
Reabsorption, reclaiming valuable solutes (glucose, salts, amino acids) from the filtrate Type of Organism Flatworms Structure Flame cells Unsegmented roundworms Protonephridia, closed network of dead-end tubes lacking openings Annelids Metanephridia, open-ended network of tubes with internal
openings that collect body fluids Product of excretio n Other features Type of Organism Molluscs Structure Product of excretion Metanephri dia Crustacea Antennal/ green gland
ns Insects Malpighian tubules and Uric acid digestive tract Other features Type of Organism Marine fishes Elasmobranch s (sharks, Structure Gills for osmoregulation, kidneys Kidneys Product
of excretion Ammonia Urea skates, rays) Freshwater fishes Gills for osmoregulation, kidneys Other features Rectal glands excrete excess NaCl Ammonia or urea Amphibians and mammals Kidneys
Urea Liver converts ammonia to urea Reptiles and birds Kidneys Uric acid Salt glands From Blood Filtrate to Urine: A Closer Look Two solutes: NaCl and urea, contribute to the osmolarity
of the interstitial fluid Cause the reabsorption of water in the kidney and Nervous system and hormones regulate kidney functions Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) Stimulated by a rise in the bloods osmolarity (>300 mosm/L)
Enhances fluid retention by making the kidneys reclaim more water Increases water reabsorption in the distal tubules and The renin-angiotensinaldosterone system (RAAS) Responds to a loss of salt and water in the blood Stimulated by low blood volume or pressure Increases water and
sodium ion reabsorption in the proximal and distal tubules Leads to an increase in blood volume and pressure Opposed by the hormone Some medical aspects concerning the excretory system Urinary tract infection (UTI) bacterial infection cystitis/pyelonephritis treated by antibiotics and prevented
through proper hygiene Kidney stones solidified crystals in kidneys or ureters Calcium oxalate Uric acid nephrolithiasis/urolithiasis prevention: Drinking adequate water
Proper diet low in protein, N, and Na Avoid excess Vitamin C intake Dialysis Hemodialysis Peritoneal dialysis
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