Organizational Behavior - University of Richmond

Organizational Behavior - University of Richmond

Coming together is a beginning, staying together is progress, working together is success. Henry Ford Group Development Outline Group Development and Group Cohesion

Tuckmans Basic Group Development Model An Alternative Explanation for Developing Group Cohesion Social Identity Theory Model of Group Socialization Factors Affecting Impact of Membership Change Dyadic Group Development Social penetration theory Relational dialectics Group Cohesion The strength of the bonds linking the group members to the group, the unity of the group, the feeling of attraction for specific group members and the group itself, and the degree to which the group members coordinate their efforts to

achieve goals. (Forsyth, 1999) A dynamic process reflected in the tendency for a group to stick together and remain united in the pursuit of its goals and objectives (Carron, 1982) Cohesion & Performance Performance Success Cohesion Relationship Between Cohesiveness and Productivity

Group Development Group development How groups develop over time as members interact, learn about each other, structure relationships and roles Sequential stage theories Group development proceeds through a fixed series of stages

Theories of Cohesion Research generally suggests that there are five stages to the development of group cohesion. Tuckman (1965), defined these as 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Orientation (Forming) Conflict (Storming) Structure (Norming)

Work (Performing) Dissolution (Adjourning) Tuckmans Five-Stage Theory of Group Development Performing Adjourning Norming Storming Forming Independence Dependence/ interdependence

Return to Independence Tuckmans Five-Stage Theory of Group Development Forming Storming Individual How do I fit Whats my Issues in? role here? Group Issues

Why are we fighting over Why are we whos in here? charge and who does what? Norming Performing How can I What do the best others expect

perform my me to do? role? Can we agree Can we do on roles and the work as a job properly? team? Group Cohesion: An Alternative Explanation Group cohesion may be caused by the processes of social identity and self categorization (Hogg)

Social Identities People have an innate and strong tendency to mentally organize things and people into categories; ingroups and outgroups To the extent that we associate ourselves with groups (i.e. selfcategorization), we have social identities To the extent that we identify with groups that are valued (e.g., powerful, prestigious, high status, popular), well feel good about ourselves.

Social identities (via our group memberships) are important aspects of how we define ourselves Accentuation of ingroup similarities and outgroup differences leads to depersonalization of members as individuals take on the identity of the group Social Identity & Group Cohesion Group cohesion can be explained by social attraction whereby members are attracted to the group entity (ideas and beliefs) rather than its individual members.

Popular members of a group are those who epitomize the groups beliefs and norms This idea of shared beliefs and values generates a higher degree of unity and sense of we-ness Model of Group Socialization Group Socialization Process of mutual adjustment between the group and its members Model of Group Socialization Investigation phase

Socialization phase Maintenance phase Resocialization phase Remembrance phase Factors Affecting Impact of Membership

Change Fixed/stable vs. not fixed/unstable Reason for member change Frequency/predictability of member change Size of change relative to group size

Centrality of departing members Dyadic Group Development Models of two-person group development Dyadic group development theories Social penetration theory Relational dialectics

Social Penetration Theory Social penetration theory Relationships develop as people engage in reciprocal self-disclosure The Self as a Multilayered Onion Levels of self 1. Public self 2. Semi-private self limited set of people know 3. Inner Core

a. Private domain b. Values, self-concept, deeply felt emotions Relational intimacy is tied to how much other person knows of these levels Self Disclosure Definition: The disclosure of personal information not available to all.

Self-disclosure has breadth (range) and depth (how revealing) and develops over time Everyone has different level of comfort some disclose info. freely and often some hold personal info. very close What is acceptable / unacceptable?

Expectation of reciprocity Social penetration theory (Altman & Taylor, 1973) Breadth and Depth of a Typical Onion Social Penetration Theory 4 Stages: Orientation stage

Exploratory affective stage More information is exchanged but its still not very personal Affective stage Exchange of superficial (public) information about self

Close friendships develop and some intimate details are shared; some barriers remain Stable exchange stage Highly intimate; able to predict each others actions and responses Another View on Dyadic Relationships Relational dialectics Dyadic relationships change in response to opposing, yet related, forces

Dyadic partners experience internal, conflicting pulls causing relationships to be in a constant state of flux, known as dialectical tension. The pressures of these tensions occur in a wavelike or cyclical fashion over time. Relational Dialectics introduces the concept that the closer individuals become to one another, the more conflict will arise to pull them apart. Relational Dialectics 3 relationship dialectics Openness/closedness dialectic

Novelty/predictability dialectic I want to be close/I need my own space I like the familiar rhythms/we need to do something new and different Autonomy/connection dialectic I like sharing with you/I dont want to share this with you Group Development Activity

Trace the development of a group you once belonged to (consider, for example, a class you took last semester). Make note of the extent to which the group experienced (a) an orientation stage, (b) conflict, (c) increased cohesion and changes in structure, (d) a period of high performance. Which of the two theories discussed in the book--Tuckman's stage model or Bale's equilibrium model--best describes your group?

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