Organic Molecules - North East Independent School District
Organic Molecules Molecules that contain carbon Essential Question: What is the structure and function of the 4 groups of organic compounds? Carbon is important to living organisms for several reasons. Carbon
is found in all living things Complex molecules are made up of carbon bonding with
other elements to make biological building blocks Building blocks link together to form complex molecules Monomers are building blocks. Monomers bond together to form
long chains called polymers. Building blocks link together to form complex molecules 4 types of Biomolecules Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins
Nucleic acids 1. Carbohydrates Sugars, starches and fibers found in fruits, grains,
vegetables and milk products. Function Quick/short-term energy Energy storage Structure
Elements (C,H,O) Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Monomer: Monosaccharide Simple EX:
sugars glucose, fructose, galactose Polysaccharides many monomers joined together Starch
energy storage in plants Glycogen energy storage in animals Cellulose support for plant cell walls Chitin support in exoskeletons of arthropods EX: Carbohydrates Identify each example as a
monosaccharide or polysaccharide. potatoes fruit pasta exoskeleton
honey 2. Lipids A group of biological molecules that generally do not dissolve in water
Found in Vegetable oil Animal fats Waxes Cell Membranes Steroids/Hormones
Candle wax Lipid bilayer of cell membrane Function Insulation Protection Long
term energy storage Elements (C, H, O) Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Monomers Glycerol
Fatty acids Polymer Ex. Triglyceride = Glycerol and three fatty acids
Ex. Phospholipid Phosphate group, 2 fatty acids & glycerol 3. Proteins Large, complex molecules that play many
critical roles in the body Found in muscle skin hair
Functions Structure Speed up chemical reactions (enzymes) Regulate body processes (antibodies & hormones)
Elements (C, H, O, N) Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen Monomer Amino Acids
(20 different kinds) Polymer Amino acids are joined together to form protein The
bond between amino acids is called a PEPTIDE BOND. Peptide bond 4. Nucleic Acids Function:
Store, transmit, and transfer genetic information Examples: DNA & RNA Elements: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus Monomer Nucleotide
(3 parts) Polymer (Circle the nucleotides) Questions?? Name that Biomolecule Fill in the missing idea
Fatty acid These all describe monomers nucleotide glycerol
Name that biomolecule CONCEPT REVIEW: True or False 1) All living things are made up of the element nitrogen. FALSE
Name that Biomolecule Which of the following does not belong with the others? These are organic compounds. Proteins
Atoms Lipids Nucleic Acids Turn to a Partner List
the 4 biomolecules along with their monomer(s) Review Carbon Compounds Include 4 types
EX: Made up of Made up of which contain which contain
EX: Made up of Made up of which contain
which contain EX: EX: Review Carbon
Compounds Include 4 types Carbohydrates Lipids Nucleic Acids
Proteins Made up of Made up of Made up of Monosaccharides
Glycerol & fatty acids Amino Acids Nucleotides which contain
which contain which contain which contain Carbon, hydrogen,
EX: EX: Cornell Summary & Study Questions To be successful today
Pick up graded work from lab station 7 (2 papers) Pull out your review sheet
Clear off desk To be successful today Locate the following papers in your folder: 10 & 11) Organic Molecule Notes 12) Carbon Compounds Flow Chart
13) Organic Molecules Foldable 17) Biomolecules Chart 18) NOTES: Enzymes How are polymers are put together or broken down?? Dehydration synthesis (condensation reaction) water is released when monomers
are put together to form polymers OH OH H2O Hydrolysis water is added when polymers
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