Object Oriented Analysis Process - Knowledge Unlimited

Object Oriented Analysis Process - Knowledge Unlimited

Object Oriented Analysis Process Identifying Use Cases Session Objectives Introduction Why Analysis is difficult Business Object Analysis: Understanding the business layer Use case Driven Object Oriented Analysis: Unified Approach Business Process Modeling

Session Objectives Use Case Model Use Case User Microscope Uses and Extends Associations Identify the Actors Guidelines for Finding Use Cases How Much Detailed must be a use case be? Dividing Use Cases into Packages Naming a use case

Session Objectives Developing Effective Documentation Guidelines Case ATM Study: Analysing the ViaNet

Introduction Analysis is the process of transforming a problem definition from a fuzzy set of facts and myths into a coherent statement of systems requirements. Tools used are: Examination of existing system documents, Interviews , Questionnaire, Observations Why Analysis is Difficult?

Analysis is a creative activity that involves understanding the problem, its associated constraints , and methods of overcoming those constraints. This is an iterative process and goes until problem is completely understood. Common Problems in analysis are Fuzzy and ambiguous requirements Incomplete Requirements Unnecessary Features Why analysis is a Difficult

Activity A common problem that leads to requirement ambiguity is a fuzzy and ambiguous description, such as "fast response time" or "very easy and very secure updating mechanisms." However, because of the iterative nature of object-oriented analysis and the unified approach, most of the incomplete requirements can be identified in subsequent tries

Business Object Analysis: Understanding the Business Layer Business object analysis is a process of understanding the system requirements and establishing the goals of application. Main Activity is to understand the system requirements. The outcome of the business object analysis is to identify classes that make up the business layer and the relationships that play a role in

achieving system goals. Business Object Analysis: Understanding the Business Layer To understand the users' requirements, we need to find out how they "use" the system. This can be accomplished by creating use cases. Usually, domain users or experts are the best authorities. Try to understand the expected inputs and desired responses.

Defer unimportant details until later. State what must be done, not how it should be done. Business Object Analysis: Understanding the Business Layer Preparation of a prototype usually can help you better understand how the system will be used, and therefore it is a valuable tool during business object analysis. Separating the what from the how is

no simple process. Fully understanding a problem and defining how to implement it may require several tries or iterations. Use Case Driven Object Oriented Analysis Identify the Actors Who is using the system? In New Case who will be using the system. Develop

a Simple Business Process Model using UML Diagrams Develop the use case: What are users doing with the system? Or In New Case what will users be doing with the system Prepare interaction Diagrams Sequence and Collaboration Diagrams Use Case Driven Object Oriented

Analysis Classification Identify Classes Indentify Relationships Identify Attributes Identify methods Iterate and Refine: If needed, repeat the preceding steps. Use-Case Model Use

Case are scenarios for understanding system requirements. A use case is an interaction between users of the system and the system itself. It captures the goal of the users and the responsibility of the system to its users. A use case model describes Use case can discover classes and the relationships among subsystems. Use Cases Under Microscope

Use case: is a flow of events through the system. By definition many courses are available. Actor: is a user playing a role w.r.t the system In a system: simply means that the actor communicates with the systems use case. Transaction: is an atomic set of activities that are performed either fully or not at all.

Use Cases Under Microscope A measurable value. A use case must help the actor to perform a task that has some identifiable value; for example, the performance of a use case in terms of price or cost. For example, borrowing books is something of value for a member of the library.

Use case Diagram of library system Uses and Extends Association The extends association is used when you have one use case that is similar to another use case but does a bit more or is more specialized. The uses association occurs when you are describing your use cases and notice that some of them have

subflows in common. For Ex: Checking library card I common for book borrow ,return books and interlibrary loan use cases. Identifying the Actors Identifying the actors is as important as identifying classes, structures, association, attributes and behavior The term actor represents the role a user plays with respect to

system. Users may play one or many roles. Jacobson et al provides 2-3 rule: Guidelines for Finding Use Cases For each actor find the tasks and functions that the actor should perform. Name the use cases Describe the use cases briefly by applying terms with which users are familiar.

It is important to separate actors from users. The actor represents a role that one or more users can play. Identify users from actors Identify actors from other actors Isolate use cases that have different initiating actors. How detailed a use case must be? Jacobson believes that in most use cases, too much detail may

not be very useful. For a 10-person-year project 20 use cases must be created. Prepare one scenario for each different use case. When arrived at the lowest use case level, you may create a sequence diagram and Naming Use cases Names should provide a general description of the use case

function. Name should tell what happens when an instance of the use case is performed Jacobson recommends that the name should be active, often expressed in form of verb or noun. Dividing Use Case into Packages A design is broken into packages.

Separate packages must be created for each scenarios. Borrow Books Do Research Borrow Books Return Books Get Interlibrary

Purchase Books Documentation A document can serve as a communication vehicle among the projects team members, or it can serve as an initial understanding of the requirements. Plays an important role in

making decisions. It becomes difficult to document a poorly understood problem Guidelines for developing a documentation Common Cover 80-20 Rule Familiar vocabulary Make the document as short as possible Organize the document.

Case Study: Analyzing Via Net Bank ATM The bank client must be able to deposit an amount and withdraw an amount from his or accounts. Each transaction must be recorded. The Via Net bank client can have two type of accounts: Checking and Savings For each checking account one savings account can exists. PIN code consisting of integer digits between 0 to 9

PIN code allows access to all the accounts. No receipts will be provided for any account transaction. Case Study: Analyzing the Via Net ATM The Bank application operates for a single banking institution only. Neither a saving nor checking account have a negative balance. The system should automatically withdraw money from a related savings account if the

requested withdrawal amount on the checking account is more than its current balance. If the balance on a savings account is less than the withdrawal amount requested, the transaction will stop and the bank client will be notified. Identifying Actors and Use Cases for the ViaNet Bank ATM System The bank application will be used by one category of users: bank clients. Notice that identifying the actors of the

system is an iterative process and can be modified as you learn more about the system. The actor of the bank system is the bank client. The bank client must be able to deposit an amount to and withdraw an amount from his or her accounts using the bank application. Identifying Actors and Use Cases for the ViaNet Bank ATM System Use-case

name: Bank ATM transaction. The bank clients interact with the bank system by going through the approval process. After the approval process, the bank client can perform the transaction. Here are the steps in the ATM transaction use case: Insert ATM card. Perform the approval process. Ask type of transaction. Enter type of transaction. Perform transaction. Eject card. Request take card. Take card.

Activities involved in ATM transaction Identifying Actors and Use Cases for the ViaNet Bank ATM System Use-case name: Invalid PIN. If the PIN code is not valid, an appropriate message is displayed to the client. This use case extends the approval process.

Transaction use cases Identifying Actors and Use Cases for the ViaNet Bank ATM System Use-case name: Deposit amount. The bank clients interact with the bank system after the approval process by requesting to deposit money to an account. The client selects the account for which a deposit is going to be made and enters an amount in dollar

currency. The system creates a record of the transaction. Identifying Actors and Use Cases for the ViaNet Bank ATM System This use case extends the bank ATM transaction use case. Here are the steps: Request account type. Request deposit amount. Enter deposit amount. Put the check or- cash in the

envelope and insert it into ATM. Identifying Actors and Use Cases for the ViaNet Bank ATM System Use-case name: Deposit savings. The client selects the savings account for which a deposit is going to be made. All other steps are similar to the deposit amount use case. The system creates a record of the transaction. This use case extends the deposit

amount use case. Identifying Actors and Use Cases for the ViaNet Bank ATM System Use-case name: Withdraw more from checking. The client tries to withdraw an amount from his or her checking account. If the amount is more than the checking account's balance, the insufficient amount is withdrawn from the related savings account. The system creates a record of the transaction and the

withdrawal is successful. This use case extends the withdraw checking use case and uses the withdraw savings use case. Identifying Actors and Use Cases for the ViaNet Bank ATM System Identifying Actors and Use Cases for the ViaNet Bank ATM System Use-case name: Withdraw savings. The client tries to withdraw an amount from a

savings account. The amount is less than or equal to the balance and the transaction is performed on the savings account. The system creates a record of the transaction since the withdrawal is successful. This use case extends the withdraw amount Identifying Actors and Use Cases for the ViaNet Bank ATM System Identifying Actors and Use Cases for the ViaNet Bank ATM System

Use-case name: Withdraw savings denied. The client withdraws an amount-from a savings account. If the amount is more than the -balance, the transaction is halted and a message is displayed. This use case extends the withdraw savings use case. Identifying Actors and Use Cases for the ViaNet Bank ATM System

Use-case name: Checking transaction history. The bank client requests a history of transactions for a checking account. The system displays the transaction history for the checking account. This use case extends the bank transaction use case. Identifying Actors and Use Cases for the ViaNet Bank ATM System

Use-case name: Savings transaction history. The bank client requests a history of transactions for a savings account. The system displays the transaction history for the savings account. This use case extends the bank transaction use case. The ViaNet Bank ATM Systems Packages

Each use case represents a particular scenario in the system. It is better to break down the use cases into packages. Narrow the focus of the scenarios in the system. In the bank system, the various scenarios involve checking account, savings account, and general bank transactions.

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