Nursing Treatment of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Ferris ...
NURSING TREATMENT OF NEONATAL ABSTINENCE SYNDROME FERRIS STATE UNIVERSITY Kelly Geraghty, Tracy James, Kristen Lintjer, Sara Potes, Rikki Zissler PICO Question Are newborn infants with high neonatal abstinence syndrome scores (8 or above) more responsive when nurses treat them with pharmaceutical or non-pharmaceutical interventions? Definition of Withdrawal Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) is a cluster of symptoms, exhibited by the baby, that indicates physiological
response to the immediate withdrawal of maternal drug use. There are two categories of NAS: 1. 2. NAS due to prenatal or maternal use of substances that result in withdrawal symptoms in the newborn Postnatal NAS secondary to discontinuation of medications such as fentanyl or morphine used for pain therapy in the newborn (Hamdan, 2010). DRUGS THAT ARE FREQUENTLY ASSOCIATED WITH NAS ARE: Heroin
Methadone Morphine cocaine alcohol nicotine Methadone There has been a recent increase in our area in the amount of babies being born addicted to methadone which has been an approved form of therapy for opiateaddicted pregnant women. Clinics are becoming more available since this medication has shown to decrease addicted patients relapses
Withdrawal may occur as soon as 48 hours after birth and may appear up to 7-14 days after birth (Hamdan, 2010). Signs and Symptoms of Withdrawal CNS Dysfunction GI Disturbances Metabolic, Vasomotor, & Respiratory Disturbances High pitch cry Excessive, frantic
sucking or rooting Sweating Myoclonic jerks Poor feeding Fever Restlessness, sleep Poor weight gain duration less than 13 hours after feeding Respiratory rate greater than 60 without retractions, nasal flaring
Articles in Review Opiate treatment for opiate withdrawal in newborn infants, Osborn, Jeffery, & Cole (2010). This study was done to assess the effectiveness and safety of using an opiate compared to a sedative or nonpharmacological treatment for treatment of NAS due to withdrawal from opiates (Osborn et al., p. 3-4). The studies enrolled 645 infants and there were nine studies done. It was found that there was no real difference in the
failure of treatment between the infants receiving opiates to those receiving supportive care (Osborn et al., p. 3-4). This study also showed that infants that received opiates along with supportive care had a faster birth weight regain compared to infants that only received supportive care (Osborn et al., p. 8) Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome by Burgos and Burke (2009).
It stated that the treatment of NAS should always begin with nonpharmacologic measures. (Burgos , Burke 2009) Non pharmacological measures include and should be in conjunction with pharmacological interventions. To reduce environmental stimulation suggestions include: Keep infant swaddled and contained when in sleeping state, and avoid waking from a deep sleep. Adequate nutrition since their nutritional needs may be greater than that of a normal newborn Breastfeeding should be encouraged and has been shown to reduce the severity of NAS. Pacifiers should be offered or hands for non-nutritive sucking. Physical and occupational therapy may be consulted for more ideas. Skin protection is highly recommended. Offer emotional support to the family. After the birth, encourage family to do as much care as possible and tell them that support will be
available even after discharge from the hospital. Neonatal abstinence syndrome: assessment and pharmacotherapy Finnegan (1990) The Finnegan scoring system is the most widely used even though it is 21 years old. It lists 21 symptoms that are most frequently observed in opiate-exposed infants (Finnegan, 1990, p. 2). The symptoms are rated by severity and the total is calculated for that period of time (Finnegan, p. 2).
This tool was designed to be used with term infants therefore it may need to be modified for preterm infants. :Maternal Methadone use in pregnancy factors associated with the development of neonatal abstinence syndrome and implications for healthcare resources. Dryden, C., Young, D., Hepburn, M and Mactier, H. (2009) The study included 450 infants and data was collected on
437. Of the infants in the study, 45.5% of received pharmacological treatment for NAS. Duration of oral morphine was from 1-44 days. Half were discharged to home on Phenobarbital and therapy ranged from 2-140 days. As high as 93% of infants requiring Phenobarbital were exposed to poly-drug use in utero. Breastfeeding was initiated in 27.7% of these infants and 48.8% of these infants were admitted to the NICU. (Dryden et al 2009) Stays in hospital ranged from 1-108 days and 40% of these were admitted due to NAS.(Dryden et al) Breastfeeding for greater than 48 hours was independently associated with halving the odds of the Assessment tool for NAS FINNEGAN SCALE This scale assesses 21 of the most common
signs of neonatal drug withdrawal syndrome and is scored on the basis of pathological significance and severity of the adverse symptoms (Hamdan, 2010). If an infant receives three consecutive scores of 8 or higher, treatment for withdrawal is started. Typical scoring chart Irritability 0 NA Startle 0 NA
0 NA Tremors Hyper tonicity 0 NA Reguritation Loose or watery stools 0 NA 0 NA Yawning or
Sneezing 0 NA Sweating or Mottling 0 NA Sleep cycle 1 Restless even after intervention 2 Hyperactive 3 When
undisturbed 2 Hyper tonicity present 2 Regurgitation 2 Loose watery stools 1 More than 2 a session 2 Sweating or mottling present 1 Less than 2hr 2 Crying or frantic
fist sucking 3 Fresh excoriation of limbs 4 Continuous cry 4 When disturbed 2 Less than 1hr 3 Does not sleep between feeds (Finnegan, 1990,
Supportive Therapy NON-PHARMACOLOGIC INTERVENTIONS 1. DECREASE ENVIRONMENTAL STIMULATION Quiet room Dimming lights Low activity level Nurses should use slow movements and avoid talking at the bedside Keep the infant tightly swaddled while sleeping Dont wake the infant from a sleeping state 2. Ensure adequate nutrition
Nutritional needs may be higher due to increased activity and stress that comes from withdrawal. Breastfeeding should be encouraged and can help decrease the severity of NAS. Swaddling will help the infant control their body and help with feeding The infant should be offered the pacifier for non-nutritive sucking when possible. 3. Protect the skin
Use frequent diaper changes using barrier cream to avoid damage from frequent loose stools. Consider placing the infant on a pressure reduction mattress. 4. Encourage Attachment After the birth, encourage family to do as much care as possible and tell them that support will be available even after discharge from the hospital. Nurses should be prepared to be empathetic and nonjudgmental Say yes to the breast
Breast feeding should be encouraged. Many moms choose not to breastfeed, not due to the drugs, but due to social prejudice. Pharmacological Intervention Morphine- commonly used to reduce neural activity which ultimately decreases withdrawal symptoms.
Clonidine- has seen in some studies to decrease the affects of opiate withdrawal, and decreases the inhibitory effects on noradrenaline which is released in the locus ceruleus Phenobarbital works nonspecifically on symptoms to NAS. Methadone-activates the opiate receptors in the locus ceruleus. The locus ceruleus is one of the major clusters of noradrenergic cells in the brain.(Gereda et al, 2003 Nursing Care Even though a doctors order must be obtained before any medication is given,
NAS scoring takes nursing assessment and skills. Many institutions will implement pharmaceutical interventions when an infant has scored 8 or above in 3 consecutive scores. Nurses must exhaust all possibilities of non-pharmaceutical interventions prior to seeking medication therapy References A. (1998). Neonatal Drug Withdrawal. Pediatrics, 101(6), 1079-1086. Burgos, A. E., & Burke, B. L. (2009). Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome. NeoReviews, 10(5), E222-E229. doi: 10.1542/neo.10-5-e222. Dryden, C., Young, D., Hepburn, M and Mactier, H. (2009), Maternal methadone use in pregnancy: Factors associated with the development of neonatal abstinence syndrome and implications for healthcare resources. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 116: 665-671. Doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2008.02073.x. Finnegan LP. Neonatal abstinence syndrome: assessment and
pharmacotherapy. In: Nelson N, editor.Current therapy in neonatalperinatal medicine. 2 ed. Ontario: BC Decker; 1990. Gerada, C., Greenough, A., Johnson, K,.(2003) Treatment of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 88:F2F5 Hamdan, A. H. (2010, March 3). Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome. EMedicine Pediatrics. Retrieved March 5, 2011, from emedicine.medscape.com/article/978763-overview Johnson, K., Gerada, C., & Greenough, A. (2003). Treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome. Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Ed, 88(1):F2-F5. Doi 10.1136/fn.88.1.F2. Oei, J., & Lui, K. (2007). Management of the newborn infant affected by maternal opiates and other drugs of dependency. Journal of Pediatrics and Child Health, 43(1-2), 918. Osborn, D. A., Jeffery, H. E., & Cole, M. J. (2010). Opiate treatment for opiate withdrawal in newborn infants. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 10, 1-55. Doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD002059.pub3. Schub, E., & Davidson, H. A. (2010, March 5). Evidence Based Care Sheet, Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome. Retrieved
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