NS3LeadershipU1C2

NS3LeadershipU1C2

CHAPTER 2 QUALITIES OF A LEADER MODULE: LEADERSHIP UNIT 1: NAVAL LEADERSHIP Introduction

No Two Leaders are Alike Not all leaders possess the: Same traits Same ways of

accomplishing goals Same qualities Great leaders possess certain characteristics and abilities. It is important to know the qualities needed to be an

effective leader. Moral Responsibility Personal Codes of Conduct Great leaders have strong personal codes of conduct that do not

permit them to: Take unfair advantage of citizens or subordinates Misuse their positions for personal gain Moral Laws Moral laws are difficult to

define because: Most moral laws cannot be legally enforced Each persons level of perceived moral responsibility differs Individual conscience is the enforcer

Loyalty Loyalty Faithful and enthusiastic devotion to ones country, organization, and associates. Loyalty

Facts about loyalty: Must be earned Is a two-way street Is easily noticed when absent Effects morale May cause others to do more or less to

accomplish a mission Topic Review Q. Why must loyalty be a two-way street? Reference Study Guide Question #2

Q. Why must loyalty be a two-way street? A. Subordinates are particularly sensitive about loyalty extending downward to them and are quick to notice when it is absent. The loyalty of a senior toward his or her personnel has a great effect on the morale within the organization, and this may translate into that extra effort that is so

often necessary to accomplish a mission. Reference Study Guide Question #2 Devotion to Duty Devotion to Duty Loyalty to the position or job one holds.

Devotion to Duty Devotion is shown by: Exerting maximum effort on present job Taking initiative to learn tasks and billets demanding greater responsibility

Devotion to duty leads to: Positive recommendations Advancements Promotions Ambition is not Enough All military personnel are expected to:

Place duty above self Always perform to best of abilities Why? This is the best way to: Accomplish the mission Prevent mission failure

Topic Review Q. What is devotion to duty? Reference Study Guide Question #3A Q. What is devotion to duty?

A. Devotion to duty may be defined as loyalty to the position or job one holds. In general, devotion to duty is shown by someone who not only exerts maximum effort on the present job, but also takes initiative to learn about tasks and billets demanding increased levels of

responsibility. Reference Study Guide Question #3A Q. How does devotion to duty relate to healthy personal ambition? Reference Study Guide Question #3B

Q. How does devotion to duty relate to healthy personal ambition? A. Positive recommendations, advancements, and promotions are likely to result from such performance of duty. Reference Study Guide Question #3B

Q. How does devotion to duty relate to the ability to take orders? Reference Study Guide Question #3C Q. How does devotion to duty relate to the ability to take orders?

A. The unit might fail in its mission if some individuals fail to do their part. Reference Study Guide Question #3C Professional Knowledge

Book Smarts is not Enough Experience is essential. Do the following to gain knowledge and experience: Call upon more experienced people to assist whenever needed

Learn as much as possible from prior leader when replacing a leader New Leaders Listen New leaders motivate others by: Showing interest in

learning from their experience subordinates will be eager to help Listen to advice and suggestions from the person being relieved Topic Review

Q. What two main qualifications are necessary for a leader to be regarded as knowledgeable? Reference Study Guide Question #4 Q. What two main qualifications are

necessary for a leader to be regarded as knowledgeable? A. The person who knows the job thoroughly is far better qualified to lead than one who does not. Mere schoolbook knowledge is not sufficient; experience is also essential.

Reference Study Guide Question #4 Self-Confidence Self-Confidence Self-confidence is one of the most important qualities of leadership. It is increased by

increasing knowledge. Proven Ability on the Job Past accomplishments and educational degrees by themselves are not sufficient. Proven ability on the job is a basic requirement.

Inexperienced Leaders Mistakes Arrogance Arrogance == Loss Loss of of Respect Respect

Loss Loss of of Respect Respect == More More Difficult Difficult Job Job

Initiative and Ingenuity Initiative and Ingenuity are Desired Showing initiative and ingenuity is possible in the military services. The need for initiative and ingenuity is greater than

ever because of new things such as: Ships

Equipment Weapons Concepts of warfare Gain Self-Confidence Gain self-confidence by: Preparing yourself by taking advantage of everyday opportunities

Not forgetting the importance of background knowledge to problem-solving Trying to be aware of what has already been tried Not wasting time and effort by reinventing the wheel Courage Courage

The quality that enables us to accept our responsibilities and to carry them out regardless of the consequences. A Courageous Person A courageous person: Meets dangers and difficulties with firmness

Conquers inner fears Concentrates on the task at hand Develops and strengthens courage over time by using it to overcome obstacles Accepts disappointment,

but tries again to succeed Developing Courage Courage develops and strengthens over time by: Overcoming obstacles Accepting disappointment of

failure, but striving again for success Topic Review Q. How can courage be strengthened? Reference Study Guide Question #5

Q. How can courage be strengthened? A. Courage is a quality of the mind and may be developed and strengthened with use. Each time a person overcomes an obstacle whether it is a tough examination, or a sports opponent, or peer

pressure the courage of that individual will be strengthened. Reference Study Guide Question #5 Moral Courage Moral Courage A show of firmness in difficult situations

where the danger of death or injury is not an immediate concern. Moral Courage is Difficult Examples of pressures that make moral courage difficult include: Fear of anger from seniors Fear of ridicule by

peers Lack of confidence due to immaturity Ignorance Importance of Moral Courage Why moral courage is important: It is necessary to ensure that

seniors get the information they need to make good decisions. People who say nothing, or agree with seniors and then criticize them behind their backs, lose both the respect of juniors and the trust of seniors.

Leaders who show respect for the opinions of others, especially subordinates, are admired and respected for having moral courage. It Takes Moral Courage It takes moral courage to: Admit mistakes Be honest, just, and truthful at all times

Insist on abiding by regulations and laws Stick to high principles in the face of ridicule by peers Topic Review Q. What is moral courage?

Reference Study Guide Question #6A Q. What is moral courage? A. Moral courage means a show of firmness in difficult situations where the danger of death or injury is not an immediate concern.

Reference Study Guide Question #6A Q. What are the principal factors that make moral courage difficult? Reference Study Guide Question #6B

Q. What are the principal factors that make moral courage difficult? A. Fear of anger from seniors, fear of ridicule by peers, and lack of confidence due to immaturity or ignorance are some of the pressures that make the exercise of moral courage difficult.

Reference Study Guide Question #6B Q. How can a lack of moral courage lead to the loss of both the respect of juniors and the trust of seniors? Reference Study Guide Question #6C

Q. How can a lack of moral courage lead to the loss of both the respect of juniors and the trust of seniors? A. The person who says nothing, or agrees with seniors and then criticizes them behind their backs, loses both the respect

of juniors and the trust of the seniors. Reference Study Guide Question #6C Q. Why could it be especially dangerous to neglect reporting a disagreeable fact to a commander?

Reference Study Guide Question #7 Q. Why could it be especially dangerous to neglect reporting a disagreeable fact to a commander? A. Moral courage is necessary to ensure that seniors get the information they need

to make good decisions even if such information upsets them. Reference Study Guide Question #7 Ability to Organize and Make Decisions

The Main Job of a Leader The main job of a leader is to coordinate the efforts of personnel to achieve a common purpose.

Making Final Decisions Without the ability to make good decisions, a leader is useless. Before you make decisions, be fully aware of the skills and capabilities of assigned personnel. What Subordinates Expect

Subordinates expect clear-cut decisions about various types of problems: Personal Professional Complex Experience and Mistakes When needed, discuss problems with your

superior, especially those problems that are beyond your level of authority. Accept that mistakes will happen and that they are learning opportunities. From mistakes comes experience, and from experience comes wisdom. Topic Review

Q. Why is decision-making important for a leader? Reference Study Guide Question #8A Q. Why is decision-making important for a leader?

A. Without the ability to make good decisions, a leader is useless. Reference Study Guide Question #8A Q. How can the young leader obtain help when confronted with problems beyond his

or her experience to solve? Reference Study Guide Question #8B Q. How can the young leader obtain help when confronted with problems beyond his or her experience to solve?

A. He or she can call upon the expertise and experience of seniors to assist. Reference Study Guide Question #8B Personal Example Do as I Say and as I Do

Reasons to lead by personal example: When leaders conduct is outstanding, those around them are often inspired to pattern their own actions after them, to the good of the whole organization No leader can ignore the rules

and regulations and still expect subordinates to follow them If you dont lead by personal example, youll lose trust, respect, and control Honor the Uniform No good citizen or military service member would

do anything to dishonor the uniform, for such conduct can bring dishonor upon the United States and its armed forces. Topic Review Q. Why is the leaders personal example so important in leading subordinates?

Reference Study Guide Question #9 Q. Why is the leaders personal example so important in leading subordinates? A. When leaders conduct is outstanding, those around them are often inspired to pattern their

own actions after them, to the good of the whole organization. No leader can ignore rules and regulations and still expect subordinates to follow them. Such a leader will not be trusted and will lose control of subordinates. Regaining respect and control once they are lost is exceptionally difficult. Reference Study Guide Question #9

Mutual Trust and Confidence Trust and Confidence in Subordinates It is important to let subordinates know they are

trusted. If you fail to show trust, you will be: Constantly checking up Distrusting records and reports Performing your own duties less efficiently

Expectations Versus Reality Leaders do not always do what they should, but we have a right to expect them to do what is right. When leaders fail to fulfill their responsibilities, society has the right to:

Demand corrective action Sometimes demand punishment under the law Jeopardizing the Organization A leaders reputation and the organization is jeopardized when a leader:

Fails to back subordinates Shows favoritism Condones dishonesty

Allows sloppy work Evades legitimate regulations Trust, Respect, and Understanding If you show mutual trust, respect, and understanding: People are likely to exercise more personal responsibility

Morale will be higher Efficiency will be improved Burdens will be lighter Making and Keeping Commitments If you dont keep your word: You will lose respect

Attitudes of others will be negatively affected The organization will operate less efficiently Never promise what cannot be delivered. Topic Review

Q. Why are mutual trust and confidence so important in dealing with people? Reference Study Guide Question #10 Q. Why are mutual trust and confidence so important in dealing with people?

A. Mutual respect, trust, and understanding can prompt all hands to exercise a greater degree of personal responsibility. Then morale will be higher, efficiency will be improved, and burdens will be lighter. Reference Study Guide Question #10

Conduct in Uniform Causes of Poor Conduct Some common causes of poor conduct are: Dissatisfaction with unit, ship, or station conditions

Dislike of work assignment or living conditions Feeling of unfairness regarding policies Troubles at home Poor Conduct of Subordinates Weaker subordinates may resort to:

Unauthorized absence Alcohol or substance abuse Other forms of escape Prevent, Remind, Prepare As a leader, do all you can to prevent improper actions by naval personnel. Remind subordinates of their responsibility

to conduct themselves properly at all times. Be prepared to perform the duties of subordinates whenever required to do so. Corrective Actions of Leaders By regulation and for practical reasons, leaders accept responsibility for corrective action.

Before leaders take corrective action they must: Know their personnel Take care of their needs Insist on acceptance and exercise of moral responsibility Discipline

Discipline Discipline: Is the basis of true democracy Requires rules of conduct that are desirable in civilized society Does not deprive individuals of fundamental rights

Protects everyones equal rights Laws and Conventions Laws are formal rules that are put into effect by duly constituted authority, such as a city council or state legislature. Conventions are informal rules that have

become a part of our culture by custom and usage. What is Discipline? Discipline is: Training that develops self-control, character, or efficiency Control of conduct so there can be

coordination of effort for the good of all Definitions of Discipline Some definitions of discipline are: Control gained by enforcing obedience. That state of orderliness gained through selfcontrol and orderly conduct. That degree of control which moves an organized group to appropriate action upon

receipt of an order, or in anticipation of that order when circumstances prevent its being given. Admiral Burkes Definition of a Well-disciplined Organization A well-disciplined organization is one whose

members work with enthusiasm, willingness, and zest, as individuals and as a group, to fulfill the mission of the organization with expectation of success.

Signs of Discipline Here are some indications of welldisciplined Sailors: Smart salutes Proper uniform wearing Correct emergency action

Purpose of Discipline The purpose of discipline is to develop an efficient organization of personnel who are trained to achieve a common goal. What Each Person Should Know and Understand Each person should know where he or she

fits into the organization. Each person should understand that all in the group have a common purpose and are to follow and obey their leader. Military Discipline: The End Result A well-disciplined military unit accomplishes routine tasks efficiently and

responds automatically to an emergency without panicking. Topic Review Q. What is admiral Burkes definition of a well-disciplined organization?

Reference Study Guide Question #11 Q. What is admiral Burkes definition of a well-disciplined organization? A. Admiral Arleigh Burke, USN, a former Chief of Naval Operations, stated: A welldisciplined organization is one whose members work with enthusiasm,

willingness, and zest, as individuals and as a group, to fulfill the mission of the organization with expectation of success. Reference Study Guide Question #11 Q. What is the purpose of military discipline?

Reference Study Guide Question #12 Q. What is the purpose of military discipline? A. The purpose of discipline in the military services is to develop an efficient organization of personnel trained to

achieve a common goal. Reference Study Guide Question #12 Self Discipline True Discipline and Self-Discipline True discipline demands loyal but reasoned

obedience to authority. It allows for initiative. It is present even when leader is absent. Self-discipline reduces the need for specific rules and regulations such as:

Traffic laws UCMJ Civil rights laws Drug and alcohol laws Dress codes

Self-Disciplined People Self-disciplined people: Need little or no supervision Realize there is a need for self-control Develop self-discipline by repeatedly practicing self-control in day-to-day life Are the ones who hold up in the face of hardship

and danger Topic Review Q. How does a person acquire selfdiscipline? Reference Study Guide Question #13

Q. How does a person acquire selfdiscipline? A. Self-discipline begins with the realization that there is a need for selfcontrol. Development of self-discipline comes only through repeated practice of self-control. Reference Study Guide Question #13

Consistency in Disciplinary Action Disobedience of Regulations Disobedience of regulations must be handled: Immediately

Justly Consistently Inconsistency in Disciplinary Action Inconsistency in disciplinary action causes: Confusion Poor morale

Distrust of leader Defiant and indifferent attitude toward other regulations Two Rules of Disciplinary Action There are two basic rules pertaining to disciplinary action: 1. Never make a regulation that you cannot or

will not enforce. 2. Take immediate, fair action that leaves no doubt in the mind of the offender about the reason for the reprimand or punishment. Delay in Disciplinary Action Delay in disciplinary action causes resentment toward the entire system. It

also prevents the bringing about of necessary changes. Act immediately and consistently. Leniency in Disciplinary Action Leniency related to disciplinary action penalizes good people while favoring bad ones. That said, do not overcompensate by

overreacting or being arbitrary. Topic Review Q. Why is consistency in disciplinary action essential? Reference Study Guide Question #14

Q. Why is consistency in disciplinary action essential? A. In the military, disobedience of regulations must be handled immediately, justly, and consistently. Wrongdoing that is dealt with severely one day cannot be

treated as insignificant the next. Such an approach can only result in confusion, poor morale, and distrust of the leader. Reference Study Guide Question #14 Q. Why is it important not to make rules that are unenforceable?

Reference Study Guide Question #15 Q. Why is it important not to make rules that are unenforceable? A. If service people are allowed to defy a regulation openly, they will develop an indifferent attitude toward other

regulations as well. Reference Study Guide Question #15 Loss of Temper = Loss of Control

Loss of Temper Facts about loss of temper: It shows personal weakness. It does not improve effectiveness. It does not improve status. It causes loss of control of the situation. Control of Temper

A conscious effort must be made to control anger. When admonishing error or administering punishment: Remain calm Be impersonal Stay dignified

Loss of Control of Temper One who loses his or her temper is often: Inconsistent Quick-tempered Constantly shouting The results of losing ones temper is often: Confusion

Loss of effectiveness Little or no response from subordinates Remember: Loss of Temper = Loss of Control Topic Review

Q. What is the usual result if leaders lose their temper? Reference Study Guide Question #16 Q. What is the usual result if leaders lose their temper?

A. A person who loses control of him or herself usually loses control of the situation. Reference Study Guide Question #16 Knowing Personnel

Getting to Know Personnel When getting to know personnel, communicate in a way that creates mutual respect. Learn the personality and character of subordinates by developing an understanding what makes each one tick.

Getting to Know Personnel You can learn this information by:

Studying them Watching them Learning their approaches to problems Working with them Guiding them Being genuinely concerned about them

Not waiting until there are problems to help them Ensure Personnel Make sure personnel: Are as comfortable and well-cared for as possible Receive their fair share of privileges Know their personal and family lives are

of real interest Ensure Personnel (Continued) Are fully aware of whats being done on their behalf Are recognized for their contributions and feel important Feel their superiors think they are

competent Human Nature The better your insight is into human nature, and the better you understand the intelligence, education, and backgrounds of your personnel, the more effective a leader you will be when handling people.

Topic Review Q. Why is an understanding of human nature important in dealing with people? Reference Study Guide Question #17

Q. Why is an understanding of human nature important in dealing with people? A. A good leader continually strives to apply all that he or she can learn about human nature through experience and study. This knowledge can be obtained only by working at the job of human relations. The better his or her insight into

human nature, and the better he or she understands the intelligence, education, and backgrounds of personnel, the more effective the leader will be in handling people. Reference Study Guide Question #17 Friendship versus

Familiarity Friendship and Friendliness Friendship - taking a personal interest in subordinates and talking to them in a friendly manner builds

confidence and respect. Friendliness - if you are friendly and approachable, you will be one of the first ones turned to for advice. Familiarity Becoming too familiar with subordinates:

Creates a perception of favoritism Negatively influences discipline Breeds contempt

Fraternization Fraternization occurs when seniors become overly familiar (develop close personal relationships) with personnel of a lower rank, especially personnel in their own chain of command. Sexual Harassment

Sexual harassment is unsolicited or otherwise undesirable or inappropriate advances of one service member toward another based on sexual attraction, especially involving promises, rewards, or threats of punishment or other forms of intimidation.

Intolerance of Fraternization and Sexual Harassment Fraternization and sexual harassment are destructive to the morale of everyone on the job. Those found guilty of fraternization and/or sexual harassment are subject to severe discipline or separation from the service.

Topic Review Q. Why is fraternization or familiarity between officers and enlisted personnel prohibited in the military services? Reference Study Guide Question #18A

Q. Why is fraternization or familiarity between officers and enlisted personnel prohibited in the military services? A. The relationship between leaders and their subordinates influences discipline. Subordinates who perceive themselves as

favored may feel the leader will not require them to obey and perform well. Those who do not feel so favored may perceive unfair or unequal treatment, whether or not it actually exists. Reference Study Guide Question #18A Q. What is the difference between

friendship and familiarity? Reference Study Guide Question #18B Q. What is the difference between friendship and familiarity? A. The leader who talks to subordinates in a

friendly manner, taking a personal interest in them and being concerned with their problems, quickly gains their confidence and respect. On the other hand, leaders who become too familiar with their subordinates will often have difficulty in leading them. The old adage familiarity breeds contempt is applicable. Reference Study Guide Question #18B

Q. What is sexual harassment? Reference Study Guide Question #19A Q. What is sexual harassment? A. Sexual harassment is unsolicited or

otherwise undesirable or inappropriate advances of one service member toward another based on sexual attraction, especially involving promises of reward or threats of punishment or other forms of intimidation. Reference Study Guide Question #19A

Q. Why can fraternization not be tolerated in the military services? Reference Study Guide Question #19B Q. Why can fraternization not be tolerated in the military services?

A. Fraternization and sexual harassment can be extremely destructive to the morale of both those directly affected and their fellow crew members. Reference Study Guide Question #19B Q. What are the qualities of a good leader

that are discussed in this chapter? Reference Study Guide Question #1 Q. What are the qualities of a good leader that are discussed in this chapter? A. The qualities of a good leader discussed in

this chapter are moral responsibility, loyalty, devotion to duty, professional knowledge, selfconfidence, initiative and ingenuity, courage, ability to organize and make decisions, personal example, mutual trust and confidence, conduct in uniform, discipline, self-control, knowing personnel, and friendship versus fraternization. Reference Study Guide Question #1

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