Nontariff Trade Barriers - ubalt.edu

Nontariff Trade Barriers - ubalt.edu

Nontariff Trade Barriers PowerPoint slides prepared by: Andreea Chiritescu Eastern Illinois University 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use 1 Import Quota Import quota Physical restriction on the quantity of goods that can be imported during a specific time period Require an import license Specifies the total volume of imports allowed

On manufactured goods Outlawed by the World Trade Organization 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use 2 TABLE 5.1 Examples of U.S. import quotas* 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use

3 Import Quota Global quota Permits a specified number of goods to be imported each year Does not specify from where the product is shipped or who is permitted to import Plagued by accusations of favoritism Selective quota Import quota allocated to specific countries May lead to a domestic monopoly of production and higher prices 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a

license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use 4 Import Quota Effects of import quota on economys welfare Price increase Decrease in consumer surplus Redistributive effect Deadweight loss Protective effect Consumption effect Revenue effect Windfall profit Quota rent

2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use 5 FIGURE 5.1 Import quota: trade and welfare effects By restricting available supplies of an imported product, a quota leads to higher import prices. This price umbrella allows domestic producers of the import-competing good to raise prices. The result is a decrease in the consumer surplus. Of this amount, the welfare loss to the importing nation consists of the protective effect, the consumption effect, and that portion of the revenue effect that is captured by the foreign exporter. 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use

6 Import Quota Allocating quota licenses Historical share of import market Oil and dairy products Discriminates against importers seeking to import goods for the first time Pro rata basis U.S. importers receive a fraction of their demand = Ratio of the import quota to the total quantity demanded collectively by U.S. importers 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a

license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use 7 Import Quota Allocating quota licenses Auctioning of import licenses To the highest bidder in a competitive market Government - capture the windfall profits Considered by U.S. 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use 8

Quotas Versus Tariffs During periods of growing demand An import quota restricts the volume of imports By a greater amount than does an equivalent import tariff Quota More restrictive than a tariff Suppresses competition 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use 9

FIGURE 5.2 Trade effects of tariffs versus quotas In a growing market, an import tariff is a less restrictive trade barrier than an equivalent import quota. With an import tariff, the adjustment that occurs in response to an increase in domestic demand is an increase in the amount of the product that is imported. With an import quota, an increase in demand induces an increase in product price. The price increase leads to a rise in production and a fall in consumption of the import-competing good, while the level of imports 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license remains constant. distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use

10 Tariff-Rate Quota: A Two-Tier Tariff Tariff-rate quota Two-tier tariff A quota that defines the maximum volume of imports And charges the within-quota tariff Any imports above this level face a higher tariff rate Over-quota tariff 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use

11 TABLE 5.2 Product Peanuts Beef Milk Blue cheese Cotton Examples of U.S. tariff-rate quotas Within-Quota Tariff Rate 9.35 cents/kg 4.4 cents/kg 3.2 cents/L

10 cents/kg 4.4 cents/kg Import-Quota Threshold 30,393 tons 634,621 tons 5.7 million L 2.6 million kg 2.1 million kg Over-Quota Tariff Rate 187.9 percent ad valorem 31.1 percent ad valorem 88.5 cents/L

$2.60/kg 36 cents/kg 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use 12 Tariff-Rate Quota: A Two-Tier Tariff Administration of tariff-rate quotas License on demand allocation If demand exceeds the quota, the import volume requested is reduced proportionally among all applicants Historical market share

Auctions 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use 13 Tariff-Rate Quota: A Two-Tier Tariff U.S. sugar industry Government subsidies Price support Tariff-rate quota Sugar tariff-rate quota Raw cane sugar

Allocated on a country-by-country basis among 41 countries Refined sugar Allocated in a global first-come, first-serve basis 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use 14 Tariff-Rate Quota: A Two-Tier Tariff Sugar tariff-rate quota Restrict the supply of foreign sugar from entering U.S. Higher domestic sugar price 2006, U.S. price = 20.94 cents per pound

World price = 10.42 cents per pound American consumers - spend extra $2 billion a year on sugar 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use 15 Tariff-Rate Quota: A Two-Tier Tariff Sugar tariff-rate quota Concentrated benefits Enormous revenues for a very small number of domestic growers and refiners

Dispersed costs Spread across the U.S. economy 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use 16 Export Quotas Export quotas Market sharing pact, voluntary export restraint agreement To moderate the intensity of international competition Tend to be more costly than tariffs

2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use 17 Export Quotas Export quotas Study: three major U.S. voluntary export restraint agreements of the 1980s Automobiles, steel, and textiles and apparel 67% of the costs to American consumers - captured by foreign exporters as profit 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use

18 Domestic Content Requirements Domestic content requirements By organized labor To limit the practice of outsourcing Minimum percentage of products total value That must be produced domestically If the product is to qualify for zero tariff rates Pressure domestic and foreign firms To use domestic inputs (workers) 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use

19 Domestic Content Requirements Domestic content requirements Higher input prices Higher product prices Loss of competitiveness Subsidizing by domestic consumers of the domestic producer 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use 20

TABLE 5.3 Domestic content requirements applied to automobiles in selected countries 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use 21 FIGURE 5.3 Welfare effects of a domestic content requirement A domestic content requirement leads to rising production costs and prices to the extent that

manufacturers are forced to locate production facilities in a high-cost nation. Although the content requirement helps preserve domestic jobs, it imposes welfare losses on domestic consumers. 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use 22 Subsidies Subsidies Outright cash disbursements, tax concessions, insurance arrangements, and loans at belowmarket interest rates From the government for producers To help improve their market position Provide domestic firms a cost advantage Market products at prices lower than warranted by their actual cost or profit considerations

2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use 23 Subsidies Domestic production subsidy Granted to producers of import-competing goods Export subsidy Granted to producers of goods that are to be sold overseas Subsidy Net price received by the producer = price paid

by the purchaser + subsidy 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use 24 Subsidies Welfare effects of domestic production subsidy Higher output Subsidy revenue some redistributed to the more efficient producers - producer surplus Deadweight loss Protective effect Lower welfare loss than a tariff or a quota Direct cost of the subsidy

Financed out of tax revenues paid by the public 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use 25 Subsidies Welfare effects of export subsidy Higher output and price Higher exports; Lower domestic consumption Domestic producers gain at the expense of the domestic consumer and taxpayer Decrease in the consumer surplus Increase in the producer surplus Taxpayer - bears the cost of export subsidy

Deadweight loss of welfare 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use 26 FIGURE 5.4 Trade and welfare effects of subsidies A government subsidy granted to import-competing producers leads to increased domestic production and reduced imports. The subsidy revenue accruing to the producer is absorbed by producer surplus and high-cost production (protective effect). A subsidy granted to exporters allows them to sell their products abroad at prices below their costs. However, it entails a deadweight welfare loss to the home country in the form of the protective effect and the consumption effect.

2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use 27 GLOBALIZATION How foreign is your car? Buyers of cars and light trucks Can learn how American or foreign their new vehicle is Content labels - where the parts of the vehicle were made Measured by the dollar value of components Not the labor cost of assembling vehicles

2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use 28 TABLE 5.4 North American content of automobiles sold in the United States, 2007 (sales weighted) 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use 29

Dumping Dumping International price discrimination Foreign producers charge lower prices than domestic producers for an identical product After allowing for transportation costs and tariff duties Selling in foreign markets at a price below the cost of production 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use 30

Dumping Sporadic dumping (distress dumping) A firm disposes of excess inventories on foreign markets Selling abroad at lower prices than at home May be the result of misfortune or poor planning Beneficial to importing consumers Disruptive to import-competing producers 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use 31

Dumping Predatory dumping A producer temporarily reduces the prices charged abroad to drive foreign competitors out of business Acquiring a monopoly position New higher prices to offset any losses that occurred during the period of cutthroat pricing Prevent the entry of potential competitors Home governments - concerned Retaliate with antidumping duties 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use 32

Dumping Persistent dumping Goes on indefinitely A producer may consistently sell abroad at lower prices than at home International price discrimination Different demand elasticity Domestic market Foreign market Charge different prices - Higher profits 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use

33 Dumping Successful international price discrimination Submarkets demand conditions must differ Ensure different demand elasticities Firm must be able to separate the two submarkets Prevent any significant resale of commodities Markets easier to separate internationally High transportation costs Governmental trade restrictions 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use

34 FIGURE 5.5 International price discrimination A price-discriminating firm maximizes profits by equating marginal revenue, in each submarket, with marginal cost. The firm will charge a higher price in the less-elastic-demand (less competitive) market and a lower price in the more-elastic-demand (more competitive) market. Successful dumping leads to additional revenue and profits for the firm compared to what would be realized in the absence of dumping. 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use 35

Antidumping Regulations Antidumping duty U.S. Department of Commerce Foreign merchandise is being sold at less than fair value (LTFV) U.S. International Trade Commission (ITC) Determines that LTFV imports are causing/threatening material injury Imposed in addition to the normal tariff 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use

36 Antidumping Regulations Margin of dumping Amount by which the foreign market value exceeds the U.S. price Foreign market value Priced-based definition Dumping occurs whenever a foreign company sells a product in the U.S. market At a price below that for which the same product sells in the home market 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use

37 Antidumping Regulations Foreign market value Cost-based definition Cost of manufacturing the merchandise + general expenses (at least 10% of cost of manufacturing) + profit on home-market sales (at least 8% of manufacturing cost + general expense) +packaging the merchandise for shipment to U.S. 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use 38

Antidumping Regulations Smith Corona, Inc. Won several antidumping cases from the 1970s to the 1990s Ferocious competition from Brother Industries Ltd. of Japan 1989, Canadian government U.S. Delicious apples - dumped on the Canadian market Injury to 4,500 commercial apple growers 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use 39

TABLE 5.5 Normal value and the margin of dumping: Delicious apples, regular storage, 19871988* 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use 40 TRADE CONFLICTS Swimming upstream: the case of Vietnamese catfish

Vietnamese catfish Comparative advantage Vietnams Mekong Delta and cheap labor Half-million Vietnamese earn income from the catfish trade 20% of the frozen catfish-fillet market in U.S. Lower prices 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use 41 TRADE

CONFLICTS Swimming upstream: the case of Vietnamese catfish Catfish farmers in Mississippi Trade war: product labeling, antidumping tariffs Persuade the U.S. government to close the catfish market to Vietnamese farmers Out of 2,000 types of catfish, only the American-born family could be called catfish Disinformation campaign - Vietnamese catfish slippery catfish wannabe probably not even sporting real whiskers floating around in Third World rivers nibbling on who

knows what 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use 42 TRADE CONFLICTS Swimming upstream: the case of Vietnamese catfish Catfish farmers in Mississippi Antidumping case against Vietnamese catfish U.S. Department of Commerce Did not have strong evidence that the imported fish

were being sold in America more cheaply than in Vietnam, or below their cost of production Declared Vietnam a nonmarket economy Dumping tariffs: 37-64% (permanent) 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use 43 TRADE CONFLICTS Swimming upstream: the case of Vietnamese catfish

This nonmarket designation Should not have been used Because the U.S. government was encouraging Vietnam to become a market economy 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use 44 Is Antidumping Law Unfair? Antidumping laws Ensure a level playing field by offsetting artificial sources of competitive advantage Protected industries gain Consumers of the protected good lose more

Whole economy lose more Dumping When a foreign producer sells goods in U.S. at less than fair value 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use 45 Is Antidumping Law Unfair? Fair value Average total cost + 8% allowance for profit Average variable cost

Better measure than average total cost Firms facing excess production capacity Incentive to stimulate sales Cutting prices charged to foreigners To levels that just cover average variable cost 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use 46 TABLE 5.6 Dumping and excess capacity 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license

distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use 47 Is Antidumping Law Unfair? Antidumping law unfair Uses average total cost to determine fair value Under competitive conditions Firms price their goods at average variable costs, Punish firms that are simply behaving in a manner typical of competitive markets U.S. firms selling at home are not subject to the same rules 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a

license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use 48 Is Antidumping Law Unfair? Antidumping law - does not account for currency fluctuations Fluctuations in exchange rates can cause prices to dump according to the legal definition American firms are not required to meet the standard imposed on foreign firms selling in the United States 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use

49 Other Nontariff Trade Barriers Government procurement policies Buy-national policies 1933, Buy American Act Federal agencies Purchase materials and products from U.S. suppliers If their prices are not unreasonably higher than those of foreign competitors Domestic product At least 50% domestic component content Manufactured in the United States 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use

50 Other Nontariff Trade Barriers Government procurement policies 1933, Buy American Act U.S. suppliers of civilian agencies preferences over foreign firms 6-12% preference margin 50% preference margin for Department of Defense. These preferences are Waived if the U.S.-produced good is not available in sufficient quantities or is not of satisfactory quality 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use

51 Other Nontariff Trade Barriers Government procurement policies Barrier to free trade Higher cost for government projects Deadweight welfare losses Protective and consumption effects 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use 52 TRADE

CONFLICTS U.S. fiscal stimulus and Buy American legislation $787 billion fiscal stimulus legislation During the recession of 20072009 Federal agencies can waive Buy American preferences If they inflate the cost of a construction project by more than 25% or are deemed to be against the public interest Buy American preferences are waived if they violate past trade agreements 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use

53 TRADE CONFLICTS U.S. fiscal stimulus and Buy American legislation $787 billion fiscal stimulus legislation City and state (municipal) governments in U.S. are not obligated to honor the trade agreements of the federal government Can enact Buy American 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use

54 Other Nontariff Trade Barriers Social regulations Correct a variety of undesirable side effects markets ignore Health, safety, and the environment CAF Standards Corporate average fuel economy standards Passenger cars: 27.5 miles per gallon European Union Ban on hormone-treated meat 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a

license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use 55 Other Nontariff Trade Barriers Sea transport and freight regulations U.S. shipping companies serving Japanese ports Highly restrictive system of port services Clear every detail of its visit with Japans stevedorecompany association Dockworkers available 18 hours a day or less Expensive 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use 56

Other Nontariff Trade Barriers Sea transport and freight regulations Ships docking in U.S. port U.S. dockworkers Unload and load 24 hours a day 30% less time Half the price Notify port authorities Notify the Coast Guard 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password protected website for classroom useprotected website for classroom use 57

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