http://www.as.wvu.edu/~sraylman/behavioral/ Evacuation Exit building from either of the two main doors Move away from the building while avoiding parking lots Do not congregate near
building or parking lots Proximate vs. Ultimate Observe: Bird removes eggshells from nest Proximate Hypotheses about sensory physiology, what stimulus induces the behavior Causal explanations of behavior
How? questions Ultimate Hypotheses about adaptive significance Why? questions Niko Tinbergen - formulated 4 categories of questions when
considering animal behavior: 1.Causation What is the mechanism that causes a behavior? Consider stimuli, sensation, perception, physiology
Ex: hormone levels in a ram, neural connections in a fly 2. Development (ontogeny) How does the behavior develop? Development of behavior is the result of interaction of genes and environment.
Ex. A songbird learning to sing its specific song 3. Evolution How did the behavior evolve through time?
Combine phylogeny with behavior data Ex: evolution of dance communication in bees Ex: Evolution of echolocation in swiftlets 4. Function
Why does the animal do this behavior? How does the behavior improve the fitness of the animal? Ex: Why do some ground squirrels live in groups while gray squirrels do not? Natural Selection
Given: Variation in traits exists among individuals of a population This variation is associated with differing fitness This variation is heritable Then: With time traits associated with higher fitness become more prevalent in the population
Whose fitness do we consider when determining the function of a behavior? Is a behavior used to species? Lion movie
further the Lion infanticide Male committing infanticide Prides: 3-12 adult females and their cubs
Coalitions: 2-6 males When females are nursing, hey do not have estrus What causes infanticide? vs. What is the function? Look at ecology
Infanticide at first seems counterintuitive, but it can be explained through natural selection Langurs also have infanticide and same social ecology as lions To determine the function, consider how a behavior helps the fitness of an individual
Good for the species is incorrect even with helpful behavior Ground squirrel calling in presence of predator Reminder
Using the word species Species subdivision of genus; a collection of individuals that resemble one another and can interbreed Sometimes students use the word species when they really should use individual
Ozymandias: A Study Written by Percy Bysshe Shelley Essay by Sanger Rainsford Setting in Ozymandias The setting of Ozymandias is a desolate wasteland Deserts represent the sands of time and the expanse of time before and after Ozymandias.
Dawn - welcome. Thank you for joining us today! This is the third of a three part webinar series on Starting and Maintaining Youth Advisory Boards. This series is produced by KASA, Kids as Self Advocates in partnership with The...
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Japan's Geography. Mountainous archipelago island country. Located in the Ring of Fire. Highest peak-Mt. Fuji. Known for beautiful gardens and small flowering trees. 11% arable (small amount of farming land) Averages 300 earthquakes a year! Japan has four main islands:...
Group Activity. The leaders of the new Roman Republic created the Twelve Tables (because it was separated into 12 sections). The laws governed over property, crime, theft, marriage, family, and inheritance.
Argument from authority Tradition (precedents) Statistics (research) Natural laws Legislated laws Argument from personal experience Observation first-person (the author may be involved) third-person (the author may be detached) Personal authority (ethos) Personal emotions (pathos) Reading Nonfiction The Author's Roles What...
No timetable for availability. Testing on e-book approvals indicates that checkmarc 1.0 works similarly well for e-approvals as-is, but. Tends to find more "false positives" often due to less-than-full encoding levels, but the rest of the record is fine. Most...
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