Dr. Susan Raylman Office hours: Mon Wed 12:15

Dr. Susan Raylman Office hours: Mon Wed 12:15

Dr. Susan Raylman Office hours: Mon Wed 12:15 2:00 5110 LSB Best way to contact me: [email protected] or [email protected] Website

http://www.as.wvu.edu/~sraylman/behavioral/ Evacuation Exit building from either of the two main doors Move away from the building while avoiding parking lots Do not congregate near

building or parking lots Proximate vs. Ultimate Observe: Bird removes eggshells from nest Proximate Hypotheses about sensory physiology, what stimulus induces the behavior Causal explanations of behavior

How? questions Ultimate Hypotheses about adaptive significance Why? questions Niko Tinbergen - formulated 4 categories of questions when

considering animal behavior: 1.Causation What is the mechanism that causes a behavior? Consider stimuli, sensation, perception, physiology

Ex: hormone levels in a ram, neural connections in a fly 2. Development (ontogeny) How does the behavior develop? Development of behavior is the result of interaction of genes and environment.

Ex. A songbird learning to sing its specific song 3. Evolution How did the behavior evolve through time?

Combine phylogeny with behavior data Ex: evolution of dance communication in bees Ex: Evolution of echolocation in swiftlets 4. Function

Why does the animal do this behavior? How does the behavior improve the fitness of the animal? Ex: Why do some ground squirrels live in groups while gray squirrels do not? Natural Selection

Given: Variation in traits exists among individuals of a population This variation is associated with differing fitness This variation is heritable Then: With time traits associated with higher fitness become more prevalent in the population

Whose fitness do we consider when determining the function of a behavior? Is a behavior used to species? Lion movie

further the Lion infanticide Male committing infanticide Prides: 3-12 adult females and their cubs

Coalitions: 2-6 males When females are nursing, hey do not have estrus What causes infanticide? vs. What is the function? Look at ecology

Infanticide at first seems counterintuitive, but it can be explained through natural selection Langurs also have infanticide and same social ecology as lions To determine the function, consider how a behavior helps the fitness of an individual

Good for the species is incorrect even with helpful behavior Ground squirrel calling in presence of predator Reminder

Using the word species Species subdivision of genus; a collection of individuals that resemble one another and can interbreed Sometimes students use the word species when they really should use individual

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