MANAGEMENT AND COST ACCOUNTING SIXTH EDITION COLIN DRURY

MANAGEMENT AND COST ACCOUNTING SIXTH EDITION COLIN DRURY

MANAGEMENT AND COST ACCOUNTING SIXTH EDITION COLIN DRURY Management and Cost Accounting, 6th edition, ISBN 1-84480-028-8 2004 Colin Drury Part Three: Information for Decision-making Chapter Eleven: Pricing Decisions & Profitabilty Analysis Management and Cost Accounting, 6th edition, ISBN 1-84480-028-8 2000 Colin Drury 2004 Colin Drury 11.1

Economic theory The optimum selling price is the price at which marginal revenue equals marginal cost. Management and Cost Accounting, 6th edition, ISBN 1-84480-028-8 2000 Colin Drury 2004 Colin Drury 11.2 Problems with applying economic theory 1. Difficult and costly to derive reasonably accurate estimates of demand. 2. Difficult to estimate cost functions to determine marginal cost at different output levels for many different products. 3. Demand is influenced by other factors besides price. 4. Profit maximization assumed firms may pursue other goals.

Management and Cost Accounting, 6th edition, ISBN 1-84480-028-8 2000 Colin Drury 2004 Colin Drury 11.3 Role of cost information in pricing decisions Price takers are those firms that have little control over the prices of their products or services. For price takers cost information is of vital importance in deciding on the output and mix of products and services. Price setters are those firms that have some discretion over the setting of selling prices for their products or services. Cost information is of vital importance to price setters in making pricing decisions. Firms may be price setters for some of their products /services and price takes for others. Four situations will be considered: 1. 2.

3. 4. A price setting firm facing a short-run pricing decision A price setting firm facing a long-run pricing decision A price taker firm facing a short-run product-mix decision A price taker firm facing a long-run product-mix decision Management and Cost Accounting, 6th edition, ISBN 1-84480-028-8 2000 Colin Drury 2004 Colin Drury 11.4 A price setting firm facing short-run pricing decisions Applies where companies are faced with the opportunity of bidding for one time special orders in competition with other suppliers. In this situation only the incremental cost of undertaking the order should be taken into account. Given the short-term one-off nature of the opportunity many costs will be nonincremental.

Bids should be made at prices that exceed the incremental cost and must meet the following conditions: 1. Sufficient capacity must be available to meet the order. 2 The bid price should not effect future selling prices and the customer should not expect repeat business at short-term incremental cost. 3. The order will utilize unused capacity for only a short period and capacity will be released for use on more profitable opportunities. Management and Cost Accounting, 6th edition, ISBN 1-84480-028-8 2000 Colin Drury 2004 Colin Drury 11.5a A price setting firm facing long-run pricing decisions Three scenarios considered: 1. Pricing customized products using cost-plus pricing. 2. Pricing non-customized products using cost-plus pricing or demand estimates. 3. Pricing non-customized products using target costing. In the long-term a firm can adjust the supply of resources that are committed to it

- therefore a product or service should be priced to cover all of the resources that are committed to it. Price setters have stronger grounds for adopting ABC. Management and Cost Accounting, 6th edition, ISBN 1-84480-028-8 2000 Colin Drury 2004 Colin Drury 11.5b Pricing customized products using cost-plus pricing: 1. An accurate costing system is required since undercosting will result in acceptance of unprofitable business and overcosting in the loss of profitable business. 2.To determine the selling price a full cost/long-run cost should be calculated and a mark-up added (i.e.a cost-plus selling price is determined - see sheets 11.11 and 11.12 for a more detailed explanation). 3. Cost assignment for pricing should be based on direct cost tracing or cause-andeffect assignments Arbitrary allocations (e.g.some business/facility-sustaining costs) should be allocated using behavioural drivers or covered within the mark-up. 4. ABC provides a better understanding of cost behaviour for negotiating with

customers the price and size of the orders. Management and Cost Accounting, 6th edition, ISBN 1-84480-028-8 2000 Colin Drury 2004 Colin Drury 11.6 A price setting firm facing long-run pricing decisions (cont.) Pricing non-customized products (Cost-plus pricing): 1. 2. 3. Pricing decision involves large volumes to many customers of a single product/service. Cost-plus pricing requires an estimate of sales volume to determine unit cost in order to derive the cost-plus price. Recommended that cost-plus prices are estimated for a range of potential sales volumes (see Example 11.3(a) on sheet 11.7).

Pricing non-customized products (Using demand estimates): 1. 2. If approximations of demand can be derived they may be preferable to using the cost-plus pricing approach. (Crude estimates of demand may serve instead of careful estimates of demand but cost gives remarkably little insight into demand. - Baxter and Oxendfelt). See Example 11.3(b)on sheet 11.7 for an illustration of the approach (Note that profits are maximized at a SP of 80 and how the information can be used for showing the effects of other pricing policies). Management and Cost Accounting, 6th edition, ISBN 1-84480-028-8 2000 Colin Drury 2004 Colin Drury 11.7

Examples 11.3a and 11.3b Use overhead as transparency Management and Cost Accounting, 6th edition, ISBN 1-84480-028-8 2000 Colin Drury 2004 Colin Drury 11.8 A price setting firm facing long-run pricing decisions (cont.) Pricing non-customized products (Target costing): 1. Target costing is the reverse of cost-plus pricing The target selling price is the starting point. 2. Four stages are involved: Stage 1: Determine the target price which customers will be prepared to pay for the

product. Stage 2: Deduct a target profit margin from the target price to determine the target cost. Stage 3: Estimate the actual cost of the product. Stage 4: If estimated actual cost exceeds the target cost investigate ways of driving down the actual cost to the target cost. 3. Marketing factors and customer research provide the basis for determining selling price (Not cost). 4. Emphasizes a team approach to achieving the target cost. 5. Most suited to high sales volume products.

Management and Cost Accounting, 6th edition, ISBN 1-84480-028-8 2000 Colin Drury 2004 Colin Drury 11.9a A price taker firm facing short-run product-mix decisions Applies where opportunities exist for taking on short-term business at a market determined selling price. Cost information required and the same conditions apply as those specified for a price setter facing short-term pricing decisions. If short-term capacity constraints apply the product mix should be based on maximizing contribution per limiting factor (see Chapter 9). Management and Cost Accounting, 6th edition, ISBN 1-84480-028-8 2000 Colin Drury 2004 Colin Drury 11.9b A price taker firm facing long-run product-mix decisions

In the long-term a firm can adjust the supply of resources that are committed to it Therefore the sales revenue from a product or service should be sufficient to cover all of the resources that are committed to it. Periodic profitability analysis is required to ensure that only profitable products/services are marketed. Profitability analysis should be used as an attention-directing mechanism. Ideally ABC hierarchical profitability analysis should be used (see sheet 11.10). Management and Cost Accounting, 6th edition, ISBN 1-84480-028-8 2000 Colin Drury 2004 Colin Drury 11.10 (Fig 10.2) An illustration of hierarchical profitability analysis) Management and Cost Accounting, 6th edition, ISBN 1-84480-028-8 2000 Colin Drury 2004 Colin Drury

11.11a Cost-plus pricing Different cost bases and mark-ups can be used to determine the cost-plus selling price: Cost base Mark-up Cost-plus () % selling price () (1) Direct variable costs 200 250 500 (2) Direct nonvariable costs 100 (3) Total direct costs 300

70 510 (4) Indirect costs 80 (5) Total cost (excluding higher level sustaining costs) 380 40 532 (6) Higher level sustaining costs 60 (7) Total cost 440 20 528 Management and Cost Accounting, 6th edition, ISBN 1-84480-028-8 2000 Colin Drury

2004 Colin Drury 11.11b Cost-plus pricing Target mark-ups seek to provide a contribution to non-assigned costs and profit. Target mark-ups are also adjusted to reflect demand,types of products, industry norms,competitive position,etc. Criticisms of cost-plus pricing: 1. Ignores demand 2. Does not necessarily ensure that total sales revenue will exceed total cost. 3. Can lead to wrong decisions if budgeted activity is used to unitize costs. 4. Circular reasoning Volume estimates are required to estimate unit fixed costs and ultimately price. Management and Cost Accounting, 6th edition, ISBN 1-84480-028-8 2000 Colin Drury 2004 Colin Drury 11.12

Cost-plus pricing (cont.) Reasons for using cost-plus pricing: 1. 2. 3. 4. May encourage price stability Demand can be taken into account by adjusting the target mark-ups. Simplicity Difficulty in applying sophisticated procedures where a firm markets hundreds of products/services. Used as a guidance to setting the price but other factors are also taken into account. 5.

6. Applied to only the relatively minor revenue items. Pricing policies Price-skimming Penetration pricing Pricing policies may vary depending on the different stages of a products life cycle. Management and Cost Accounting, 6th edition, ISBN 1-84480-028-8 2000 Colin Drury 2004 Colin Drury

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