CTL WORKSHOP 2008 Session 2 Plug Discharge Test Definition of Plug Discharge Slight misnomer but best fit for the same test in several standards Voltage decay over time? Standards targeted: IEC 61010 IEC 60065 IEC 60335 IEC 60950 IEC 61010: 6.1.2 If any of the parts receive a charge from
an internal capacitor, they shall not be hazardous live 10s after interruption of the supply. 6.3.1a The voltage levels are 33V rms 46.7V peak or 70V dc (in normal conditions) IEC 60065: 9.1.6 Apparatus intended to be connected to the mains by a mains plug shall be so designed that there is no risk of an electric shock from stored charge on the capacitors when touching the pins or contacts on the plug after its withdrawal from the socket outlet 2 seconds after the withdrawal of the mains plug, the pins or contacts of the plug shall not be hazardous live 9.1.1 A part is not hazardous live if the open circuit
voltage does not exceed 35V (peak) ac or 60V dc The test MAY repeated up to 10 times to determine the most unfavorable situation. IEC 60950: 1 184.108.40.206 Equipment shall be so designed that, at an external point of disconnection of an ac mains supplythe risk of electric shock from stored charge on capacitors connected in the equipment is reduced. (The circuit has a means of discharge) resulting in a time constant not exceeding 1s for pluggable type equipment Note: during an interval for one time constant, the voltage will have decayed to 37% of its original value. The relative time constant is the product of the effective capacitance. And the effective discharge resistance. If it is difficult to determine (these) values, a measurement of voltage
decay at the point of external disconnection can be used. IEC 60335-1 :22.5 Appliances intended to be connected to supply mains by means of a plug shall be constructed so that in normal use there is no risk of electric shock from charged capacitors when the pins of the plug are touched. One second after disconnection, the voltage between the pins of the plug is measured with an instrument that does not appreciably affect the value to be measured. The voltage shall not exceed 34V. The test is performed 10 times. So
The overall purpose of the cited clauses in the standard are to ensure that residual energy in the item under test is not such that it may cause an electric shock when the item is unplugged. A common method for this determination is to measure the voltage over time after disconnection to prove/disprove compliance. Some standards allow a calculation in lieu of measurement if the required information is available or determinable. Laboratories should have capability to make the measurements. Whole Group Activity: Use the summarised information provided (plus experience) to populate the table.
standard 61010 60065 60950 60335 voltage limit time elapsed to measure
special instructions/notes standard voltage limit time elapsed to measure 61010 70 V 5s
60065 60V 2s The test may be repeated 10x. Test by measurement or calculation 60950 37%, 120V if we start with 230V
1s Voltage decay measurement can be done instead of calculation 60335 34 V 1s 10x special instructions/notes Discussion questions for group
What voltage comprises hazardous live Under what circumstances would discharge after disconnection of the circuit not be dc volts? 05e27.. Focus on measurement of voltage decay Accuracy of measurement Generic instructions to cover 4 standards (apply 230V ac, measure the voltage at 1, 2, 5 and 10 seconds) Option to measure 10 times or use automated equipment Opportunity to indicate whether each of the test conditions on the sample passed or failed
according to the standards in question. (Do not answer if your lab is not in scope for the test) Assessment of Participants: Statistical comparison of actual voltage readings at each time interval Determination whether participants correctly graded the sample according to the results they submitted (irrespective of the statistical value of their result) Participants divided into groups to ensure the capability wrt scope is determined fairly. (If lab equipment is geared to test at a particular time/condition, the results should be fairly compared with other labs testing to the same standard)
The samples Each sample contained 2 test conditions (A and B) Each test condition was a separate circuit including resistors and capacitors Because of likely homogeneity issues, program design meant that each sample was tested by 6 or 7 labs (one after the other) Participants were therefore compared only with a small group (And the program takes a long time to complete!) Assigned Code Number TestA overall
1 Group activity Study the raw data provided and determine which laboratories are not in agreement with the other participants Provide possible reasons this has occurred Check the participants decisions about passing/failing of samples. Do you agree? Outcomes from group activities Issues were identified with the results from participants whose results fell out of the statistical range. Participants were using input impedance that may
not have been suitable for the testing (100M Ohm probe is recommended) Some results did not make sense (eg high result from a user of a low value probe) One participants results indicated an incorrect evaluation whether the sample passed/failed the standard Required elements of this test
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An SQA Perspective - Karen Sproull. Progression in the Senior Phase: A . F. aculty Example ... National 5 and Higher levels - coursework assessed by the SQA and an external SQA examination ... PE. S5. Higher English. Vocational Course...
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Rhytidectomy- Anatomy - The Platysma muscle is a flat, thin muscle that lies uderneath the skin of the anterior and lateral neck. Deep to the muscle lies the superficial layer of the deep cervical fascia.
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