Challenges and healthy ageing: the role of resilience

Challenges and healthy ageing: the role of resilience

Challenges and healthy ageing: the role of resilience across the life course (ResNet) Meeting on May 19th 2009 at Bangor University Definitions and determinants of resilience Resilience research ESRC Network Oct 2003-Dec 2006 Development and persistence of human capability and resilience in its social and geographical context Network co-ordinator Professor Mel Bartley Six projects Network projects Positive adjustment within the family context

Dr Ingrid Schoon Dr Amanda Sacker Resilience and quality of life in early old age Dr David Blane Prof Dick Wiggins Dr Scott Montgomery Resilient populations: a geographical perspective Dr Richard Mitchell Prof Danny Dorling Prof Stephen Platt Sources of resilience to adverse social environments Prof Stephen Stansfeld Prof Sarah Curtis How do welfare policies

and practices build resilience Prof Margaret Whitehead Prof Chris Jones Stability and persistence of resilience in early and midadult life Dr Amanda Sacker Dr Ingrid Schoon Prof Dieter Wolke Definition of resilience Showing positive adjustment despite being exposed to adversity Positive adjustment involves a variety of capabilities: cognitive, behavioural, healthrelated, motivations, temperament . Adversity can be due to psychological, biological, social and economic influences Definition and assessment dependent on the type of adversity and the capabilities in focus

Key feature is existence of protective factors that reduce the prospect of a negative outcome or increase the likelihood of a positive outcome Models of resilience Compensatory model Compensatory factors offset or cancel out the effect of adversity or risk Assumptions: compensatory factors are independent of the risk factor; they have a direct effect on the outcome; they fully or partially compensate or counteract the effects of the risk Tested using main effects specification with additive effect of these compensatory factors Protection model Protective factor has beneficial effects on those exposed to the risk but no benefit or less benefit among those not exposed

Assumptions: protective factors moderate the relationship between risk and outcome; no direct relationship between the protective factors and the outcome independent of the risk; the effect of the risk on an outcome in the absence of any protective factors is more negative than in their presence specified by an interaction effects model Compensatory and protective processes may operate at the same time Protective factors promote positive outcomes but the effects are greater for those exposed to risk Findings Schoon I, Parsons S, Sacker A. Socioeconomic adversity, educational resilience, and subsequent levels of adult adaptation. Journal of Adolescent Research 2004;19:383-404. Sacker A, Cable N. Do adolescent leisure-time physical activities foster health and well-being in adulthood? Evidence from two British birth cohorts. European Journal of Public Health 2006;16:331-5.

Sacker A, Quigley M, Kelly Y. Breastfeeding and developmental delay: Findings from the Millennium Cohort Study. Pediatrics 2006;118:e682-e9 Montgomery S, Ehlin A, Sacker A. Breast feeding and resilience against psychosocial stress. Archives of Disease in Childhood 2006;91:990-4. Sacker A, Schoon I. Educational resilience in later life: resources and assets in adolescence and return to education after leaving school at age 16. Social Science Research 2007;36:873-96. Cable N, Sacker A. The role of adolescent social disinhibition expectancies in moderating the relationship between psychological distress and alcohol use and misuse. Addictive Behaviors 2007;32:282-95. Cable N, Sacker A, Bartley M. The effect of employment on psychological health in mid-adulthood: findings from the 1970 British Cohort Study. J Epidemiol Community Health 2008;62:e10. Sacker A, Cable N. Transitions to adulthood and psychological distress in young adults born 12 years apart: constraints on and resources for development. Psychological Medicine 2009;in press.

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