LAB 8 - WA AHILA RIDGE TRIP III: Habitat Analysis We are going to be looking at how climatic conditions affect the vegetation on the ridge I. Climate Climate - long term weather patterns Weather - current momentary conditions of the atmosphere; created by the unequal heating & cooling of the earths surface. I. Climate BiomeA-major type of ecological community,

determined largely by climate. Forest Desert Tundra Savanna I. Climate Temperature & Precipitation - major factors that determine an areas climate. Temp oC

Rain mm 535 100 Climate Diagram 30 50 20 c De

ne Ju n Ja Figure 2. Climatograph for an area in leeward Oahu. "535" indicates the total annual rainfall in mm. Months when the rainfall line lies above the temperature line are considered the wet season, while the dry season is indicated when the rainfall line lies below the temperature line. I. Climate Humidity - the amount of water vapor air holds, which is dependent upon temperature. Solar irradiance

The radiant energy emitted by the sun. We are interested in conditions near the Earths surface It is highest at the equator and lowest at the poles. I. Climate Microclimate The climate immediately surrounding an organism. Can be highly variable within short distances. In a hole vs. on the surface in the desert North vs. south facing slopes Under a tree or in the open etc. II. Measuring Atmospheric Conditions Temperature - iButtons

Wind Velocity - wind meter Precipitation - rain gauges Light Intensity and Solar Radiation - light meter III. Disturbance Disturbance levels can also affect population characteristics Storms, lava flow, fire, animal or human IV. Physiognomy Description and measurement (from Lab 5 and tree height) of the form and appearance of vegetation.

Physiognomic terms for vegetation: LIFE FORMS Fungus Lichen Moss Fern Grass (bunch / sod) Herb Vine (herb / woody) Cactoid Shrub Coniferous tree Deciduous tree

FOLIAGE FORMS Fern like Grass like Palm like Needle leaved Broad leaved Thorny Succulent CONDITION Green Yellow/orange Brown Defoliated

Budding Flowering Fruiting V. Methods A. Recording Observations along the Ridge Site Descriptions Abiotic conditions B. Revisiting your Plot Check Rain Gauge Collect Data Loggers Invertebrate Sampling V. Methods

A. Recording Observations along the Ridge Site Descriptions Visit all sites Describe the physiognomy of the vegetation at each site As you ascend look for large and small patterns of vegetation Hypothesize why those patterns have arisen Fill out data sheet on page 8-11 and 8-13

Answer questions on page 8-5 and use Table I to help fill out the data sheet V. Methods A. Recording Observations along the Ridge Abiotic conditions Visit all sites At each site, collect data on the following: Windspeed (m/sec) Two measurements of light intensity (lux) If you have the GPS unit, Elevation (m)

Latitude and Longitude Anemometer / Windmeter Wind (M/S): hold it up high, and write down the number (actually measures average wind within 3 sec) Power button Mode button: - press by itself to change between how wind measured (AV, MAX, blank = use this)

- Press together with ON button to change units (use M/S) Using the Light Meter OFF 0-1999 Lux 2000-19990 Lux (display should be multiplied by 10)

20000-50000 Lux (display should be multiplied by 100) Data Hold Switch (slide to right to hold display value) Range Switch Set to Slow Response

Lux If display goes to 1, it means youve exceeded the range of the setting. Adjust range switch to next higher setting. Remember to apply the appropriate multiplier (10x or 100x). Go back to

a lower setting each reading, especially for the shaded locations. V. Methods B. Revisiting your Plot Check Rain Gauge Be sure not to include oil level in reading volume in mm (max. 150mm) Return rain gauge and pole to lab Collect Data Loggers Collect all iButtons Vegetation Height Measure vegetation height if you didnt already do it

MEASURE Vegetation Height Within your plot measure the vegetation height by measuring the 5 tallest trees/shrubs (ask your TA). Use a 20m transect tape and a clinometer to measure vegetation height as explained in the next slides. 1. Decide which are the highest trees in the plot. 2. Measure 20m (or 15m) distance from tree. 3. Look through instrument (*) with both eyes and align cross-hair with top of tree. 4. Read off tree height (in m) from appropriate scale

(20m: left scale, 15m: right scale). * Look through here Cross-hair 5. First reading give you just tree height from your eye level. You need to add or subtract tree base depending on the slope you are standing on. 6. Add height of tree base if your eye level

is above base of tree (Fig. A) OR subtract if your eye level is below (Fig. B). A B V. Methods B. Revisiting your Plot Invertebrate Sampling

Using maps, locate and collect pitfall and sticky traps. ID invertebrates with the help of Appendix E Record presence of individuals from each order. ID vertebrates to species level. Properly dispose of pitfall trap cups. Sticky trap cards go in a trash bag. Each group should submit a single complete invertebrate data sheet.

V. Methods C. Turn In Each group should turn in a copy of the invertebrate data sheet for their subplot At least one copy of the Abiotic Conditions datasheet with rainfall data needs to be given to the TA D. Clean Up Bring EVERYTHING back but large orange plot flags

Pick up any other trash you see. VI. Assignments Be sure to give your data sheets to your TA Homework assignment is due next week. Questions #1-4 on page 8-6 Bring a hard copy of your Introduction draft You will need a copy of the physiognomy data sheet for Lab 9, so make a copy that you can keep in order to complete lab 9.

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