Ethics and Equity in Engineering Monique Frize, P.
Ethics and Equity in Engineering Monique Frize, P. Eng., O.C. NSERC/Nortel Joint Chair for Women in Science and Engineering in ONTARIO Carleton University / University of Ottawa Ottawa, CANADA Content Four Ethical Theories Code of Ethics for Engineers
Ethical Decision-Making Process Privacy and Confidentiality,Plagiarism Equity (participation of women, strategies for K-12, universities, workplaces, profession) Definition of a Profession Work that requires highly developed skills, judgment, discretion, not routine; Extensive formal education to become a member (not just training); Sets standards for conduct and
self-governance; Significant public good, safety. C.B. Fledderman Engineering Ethics, Prentice Hall, 1999 Professional Engineers Act Misconduct or Incompetence Code of Ethics (Professional Engineers Ontario) Other codes (IEEE, etc.. ) Examples: Moral Dilemmas Choosing between risking health of
workers or stopping work; Is a gift innocent kindness or an attempt at bribery ? An engineer undermines another; Company secrets after leave? Definition of Ethics The study of right or wrong; Good and evil; Obligations and rights; Justice; Social and political ideals.
Andrews and Kemper, textbook referenced in course outline Ethical Decision-Making Define the problem; Assess possible solutions; Resolve moral problem and develop moral criteria to guide human behaviour and decision Four Ethical Theories Utilitarianism : John Stuart Mill
and others Formalism or Duty Ethics : Kant Rights Ethics : Locke Virtue Ethics : Aristotle Utilitarianism That which produces the maximum benefit for the greatest number of people (ex. Democracy) Calculate : Intensity and Duration of a benefit or pleasure
and number of people affected Formalism or Duty Ethics (Kant) Each person has fundamental duty to act ethically; conscience imposed on absolute, categorical imperative (i.e. unconditional demand); follows universal principles. Examples
Be honest Be fair Do not hurt others Keep your promises Obey the law This leads to RESPECT for HUMANITY Rights Ethics (Locke) Everyone has rights that arise from existing (i.e. Right to LIFE, maximum individual LIBERTY, and
human DIGNITY are FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS). Other rights arise as a consequence; DUTY is a consequence of personal rights. Examples Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms (Canadian Law, 1980s); Only the fundamental rights set by Parliament are included
(ex. Right to a harassment-free, discrimination-free environment). Virtue Ethics (Aristotle) Compromise between extremes and select the GOLDEN MEAN Between EXCESS and DEFICIENCY Virtues : Truly human qualities such as power of thought, reason, deduction, logic; happiness or goodness result if humans
qualities function fully. Examples: Golden Mean Modesty : between vanity and humility courage: foolhardiness and cowardice generosity: wastefulness and stinginess Code of Ethics Duty to Society and to the Public
Duty to Employers Duty to Clients Duty to Colleagues Duty to Employees and Subordinates Duty to the Profession Duty to Oneself
Solving Ethical Problems Define problem or need Gather information, define goal Generate alternative solutions or methods : synthesis Evaluate benefits and cost of each solution: analysis Decide and optimize Implement the best solution Privacy and
Confidentiality * Privacy: freedom from intrusion or public attention; removed from public view or knowledge. #Confidentiality: Entrusted with secrets. # Secrecy: The keeping of secrets; information is withheld. *J.W. Decew, In Pursuit of Privacy: Law, Ethics, and the Rise of Technology Cornell University Press,1997./ # Dictionaries
Plagiarism To adopt or reproduce as ones own work someone elses work; To incorporate into ones own work WITHOUT AKNOWLEDGEMENT http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/bpg/ plagiarism.htm Equity in Science and Engineering The early days: 1960s: One female student in a faculty or in a discipline
Very lonely, feel different, that you shouldnt be there, but also a mascot Culture: Lady Godiva was alive and well Macho, masculine culture The 70s A few more women, but not many (intriguing) A curiosity still, lonely but there are a few other women around, no female role models
In the workplace: one woman on a site, in a mine, in a plant, on an oil field The 80s Active recruitment, many more women (not yet too threatening) Women are told they are welcome Reality: culture still masculine, you do well if you are one of the boys In the workplace: a few more women, but not many policies on equity,
harassment, child-care BUT Charter of Rights and Freedoms The 90s Post-massacre :20 % enrolment Are women taking over? Some backlash to intervention programs But many intervention programs remain or are put into place Industry develops policies and some enforce them, pro-actively hire women There are a few women professors and
more graduate students A decade of interventions 1989: Creation of National Chair on Women in Eng 1990: A national committee (CCWE / report 92)
1993: 1995: 1996: 1997: 1998: 2000: 2002:
NABST report (Winning with Women in TTSE) A national conference (New Brunswick) Granting Council report (NSERC) Creation of FIVE regional Chairs A national conference (British Columbia) A national conference (Newfoundland) An international conference and coalition Now... General feeling that ceiling
has been reached, nothing more can be done BUT perception is not correct Much more can be achieved Female Enrolment Statistics Enrolment Statistics 50.0 45.0 40.0 35.0
All Disciplines Chemical 30.0 Civil Computer 25.0 Electrical 20.0
1999 2000 K-12 Strategies Increase the profile of women Increase contact with students Demystify various disciplines, show human connection Explain the opportunities, mentoring, networking and support
Continue major efforts not to lose ground Successful programs Pathmakers (role models, fun, exciting, confidence) Pinocchio nose (talk, game, project, visit labs) Sessions for parents/teachers Sessions with co-op employers (double standards, confidence level, benefits of diversity)
Culture Hacker and others describe the culture of engineering as an environment stressing: The importance of technology over personal relationships Formal abstract knowledge over inexact humanistic knowledge Male attributes over female ones Strategies for universities
Change the culture; humanise (teaching style, curriculum, what is valued) Monitor climate, find ways to improve Support women students with special needs Identify how feminine values improve the discipline and expect respect for these Universities (cont.) Policy on sexual harassment (in 1990s) Policy on hiring:
For equal candidates, pick a man in female dominated fields and a woman in male dominated fields Review tenure and promotion criteria MIT report: This survey is needed in every Canadian University Re-define excellence in more general way. Examples curriculum and teaching styles Multidisciplinary programs (ex. problemsolving and life sciences)
Environmental, Industrial, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering are popular Computer Science applications in arts, music Add societal context and relevance to other disciplines (mech, elec, civil) Cooperative teaching (learning) style Education and training Ethical Decision-making Social responsibility Impact of technology on people,
society Principles of sustainability, protection of the environment Gender, racial issues and homophobia Women faculty... At highest rank, almost invisible Salary, office and lab space differences Women clustered in non-tenured positions: adjunct, part-timers, instructors, lecturers In USA, concentrated in two-year
institutions More likely to be teachers than researchers, low-status fields. Workplace More flexible options, telework Enforce policies (harassment and discrimination and parental leave) Create support networks and mentoring Training on different communication styles and approaches of women and men
Encourage men to share parenting and household work (ex. OIQ: 21% men take parental leave in 1998) Remodel Increase diversity in the profession and integrate perspectives into the culture Remodel how we teach skills and abilities to fit the new needs of industry and society Build a more dynamic model of engineering education
Define success in more diverse terms Future... Many intervention programs (19892002) Unique project (five Chairs: 1997-2002) Coast to coast and many aspects of gender issues Expect major progress in next decade Ontario Chairs web site http://www.genie.uottawa. ca/cwseon http://www.icwes12.org
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