Goal of Research To derive conclusions from a body of data and discover what was previously unknown tools are needed to facilitate this goal there are many kinds of tools because of the varied nature of the types of research, but there is a general set of tools
Research Tools Specific strategy the researcher uses to collect, manipulate, or interpret data
the library and its resources the computer and its software techniques of measurement statistics the human mind facility with language
Library and Its Resources Includes the virtual library (WebCat Search the BSU Libraries' Catalog ) a listing all materials the library owns, including books, software videocassettes, CDs, and a variety of other media. indicate whether the Libraries own a specific
journal, but will not help locate articles on a topic. Library and Its Resources reference section To search for journal articles, use the databases listed under the Indexes/Articles section on the Universities Libraries' Do Research page.
Finding the Books Coded and arranged according with 2 principal systems: Dewey decimal classification system the Library of Congress (LC) classification system
browse among the shelves Finding Periodicals Determine if library shelves a periodical Current volumes are left loose on shelves older volumes are bound and found on the first floor after a certain period, volumes may be
microfiched WWW On-line journals The Directory of Computing Science Journals URL: http://elib.cs.sfu.ca/cs-journals/ 522 journals, with 414 publisher's title pages, 226 tables of contents, 65 abstracts directories, 112
home pages, 159 bibliographies, 16 full-text archives and on-line journals, and other information. WWW Using search engines careful of web pages content - look at the source
Text Definition of Measurement limiting the data of any phenomenon substantial or insubstantial - so that those data may be interpreted, and, ultimately, compared to an acceptable qualitative or quantitative standard Everyday Measurement
Everyday use measurement is to discover the extent, dimensions, quantity or capacity of something. How well you liked a song the personality of a friend the weight of your dog Research Measurement
Assigning numbers to empirical events in compliance with a set of rules. Three steps: selecting observable empirical events using numbers or symbols to represent aspects of the events applying a mapping rule to connect the observation to the symbol
Data Types Each data type has its own set of underlying assumptions about how the numerals correspond to real-world observations four widely used scales of measurement
nominal ordinal interval ratio
Nominal Data Data partitioned into categories that are mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive no order, no distance, or origin basic empirical operation is for determination of equality which class has the most members use chi-square to compare relative frequencies
Ordinal Order, but no distance or unique origin determination of greater or lesser values must fulfill the transitivity postulate, if a > b and and b > c then a > c nonparametric models percentile rank, Spearmans rank order
correlation Interval Both order and distance but no unique origin determination of equality of intervals or differences calendar time ( the elapsed time between 3 and 5 a.m equals the time between 4 and 6
a.m, however 6 a.m is not twice as late as 3 a.m because zero time is an arbitrary origin) Ratio Order, distance, and unique origin determination of equality of ratios geometric mean, percentage variation
Sources of Measurement Differences Systematic ( results from a bias) random (occurs erratically) error sources:
Measurement Validity - the extent to which a test measures what we actually wish to measure Reliability - the accuracy and precision of a measurement Practicality - wide range of factors of economy, convenience and interpretability
Validity Many forms two main are external and internal external - generalize across persons, settings and times internal - the extent to which the differences found reflect the true differences
Internal Validity Types content - degree to which the measuring instrument provides adequate coverage of the topic under study criterion-related - success of measures used for prediction, the degree to which the predictor is adequate in capturing the relevant aspects
Internal Validity Types Construct - Answers the question, What accounts for the variance in the measure? attempts to identify the underlying construct(s) being measured and determine how well the test represents them
Reliability The consistency with which a measuring instrument yields a certain result when the entity being measured hasnt changed. (waist-measuring) Reliability and Validity reliability is a contributor to validity and is a
necessary but not sufficient condition for validity. If a scale measures your weight correctly, then it is both reliable and valid. If it consistently overweighs you by six pounds, then is is reliable but not valid. If the scale measures erratically from time to time, then it is not reliable and therefore cannot be valid.
Statistics Descriptive - summarize the general nature of the data obtained Inferential - help make decisions about the data Human Mind
Deductive logic - if this then this logic Inductive reasoning - specific instances to draw conclusions about entire classes of objects or events scientific method - identify a problem, postulate a hypothesis, gather data, analyze, interpret data and resolve the problem.
Facility with Language Need to read subject matter to gain specialized terminology expressive must eventually be written Measures What can you measure about these objects ?
(be specific) a. Laundry detergent
b. Employees c. Factory output d. Job satisfaction e. Program Data Types Suggest properties of each of these objects that can be measured by each of the four
basic types of scales. a. store customers
b. voter attitudes c. hardness of steel alloys d. profitability of various divisions in a company e. program
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