Bio 161 Community Ecology: Symbiosis. Adaptation to the

Bio 161 Community Ecology: Symbiosis. Adaptation to the

Bio 161 Community Ecology: Symbiosis. Adaptation to the Environment

Adaptation to the Non-living or Abiotic environment. Desert plants

Adaptation to the non-living or abiotic environment. Rain forest

Adaptation to the non-living or abiotic environment. Canyon tree frog (camouflage cryptic coloration)

Bio 161 Organisms are adapted to the living or biotic

environment: Symbiosis.

Symbiosis: interactions between species Species Species A B

Name Symbiosis: interactions between species Species A

Species B Neutralism

0 0

Commensalism +

0 Amenalism

0 -

Mutualism +

+ Competition

- Antqagonism

+ -

Symbiosis Neutralism Commensalism Mutualism

Competition Antagonism Symbiosis: Neutralism Spec A

Spec B

name Neutralism Colorado grasslands and

Golden eagle? Jackrabbit

Symbiosis: Neutralism. Symbiosis: commensalism

Spec A Spec B

name Commensalism Symbiosis: amensalism

Spec A Spec B

name Amensalis m

Cattle and sheep make trails in grass that they trample and without realizing it are killing the grass.

Symbiosis: Amensalism or antagonism? Soil bacteria

secrete antibiotics. Creosote bushes (Mojave desert) secrete growth

inhibitor in the soil. Black walnut tree secrete JUGLONE that prevents and kills many other plants.

Symbiosis: Amensalism or antagonism? Symbiosis: mutualism.

Spec A Spec B

name Mutualism

Symbiosis: mutualism. Many examples: Symbiosis: mutualism

Pollination: Bees Honey bee

Hawkmoth approaching orchid flowers at the beginning of a foraging event.

https:// www.youtube.com/watch?v= VUiZDhs0JrA

Orchid pollinia attached to dorsal base of the hawkmoth tongue.

Orchid with spiral spur probed by hawkmoth

Orchid pollinia at the ventral base of the hawkmoth proboscis. Symbiosis: mutualism

Natural Theology: Comparison of orchid nectar spur and hawkmoth proboscis or tongue.

Why is the spur of the orchid as long as the proboscis of the moth?

Star orchid Angraecum sesquipedale) and hawk moth (Xanthopan

morganii praedicta). For the orchid to develop the very long spur (12 inches) and the moth to develop a correspondingly long proboscis the interests of the two

mutualists must be different. Orchid flower resembling female

wasp (or fly) END

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