Chapter 9 Emerging Global Interrelations The Ottoman and

Chapter 9 Emerging Global Interrelations The Ottoman and

Chapter 9 Emerging Global Interrelations The Ottoman and Safavid Empires The Ottoman and Safavid Empires 1. The Safavids were rooted in the small provincial town of Ardabil in Azerbaijan west of the Caspian Sea. A Sufi order here was called Safavid 1. The Safavids were rooted in the small provincial town of Ardabil in Azerbaijan west of the Caspian Sea. A Sufi order here was called Safavid after its first leader Safi al-Din, a Sunni, who died in 1334. Due to political chaos, the Safavid family maintained local autonomy. Sometime after after its first leader Safi al-Din, a Sunni, who died in 1334. Due to political chaos, the Safavid family maintained local autonomy. Sometime after 1392, they became Shi'ites and by the 1450s were seeking political power, raiding into Christian Georgia. Instrumental in the rise of the Safavid 1392, they became Shi'ites and by the 1450s were seeking political power, raiding into Christian Georgia. Instrumental in the rise of the Safavid would be the acceptance of Shi'ism in western Iran and eastern Asia Minor by Turkoman tribes. As Sunni Muslims, the Ottomans clashed with the would be the acceptance of Shi'ism in western Iran and eastern Asia Minor by Turkoman tribes. As Sunni Muslims, the Ottomans clashed with the Shi'ite Safavids over domination of Islamic territories and Islamic doctrines. Shi'ite Safavids over domination of Islamic territories and Islamic doctrines. 2. The founder of the Safavid dynasty was Isma'il (1502-1524) who militarily extended Safavid power. In 1501 Armenia (southwest of the Black 2. The founder of the Safavid dynasty was Isma'il (1502-1524) who militarily extended Safavid power. In 1501 Armenia (southwest of the Black Sea) and Azerbaijan were seized by Isma'il and he was proclaimed shah of Tabriz. He declared Shi'ism the official and compulsory religion of his Sea) and Azerbaijan were seized by Isma'il and he was proclaimed shah of Tabriz. He declared Shi'ism the official and compulsory religion of his new empire. This was followed by gains in central and southern Iran in 1503, most of the Tigris-Euphrates basin in 1504, Baghdad (on the Tigris) new empire. This was followed by gains in central and southern Iran in 1503, most of the Tigris-Euphrates basin in 1504, Baghdad (on the Tigris) and southwestern Iran in 1508, and by 1512 had taken from the Uzbek Turks all of eastern Iran between the Oxus River and the Arabian Sea. and southwestern Iran in 1508, and by 1512 had taken from the Uzbek Turks all of eastern Iran between the Oxus River and the Arabian Sea. Isma'il's aggression in the west against the Sunni Ottomans led ta a Safavid defeat northwest of Tabriz in 1514. The defeat gave the Ottomans Isma'il's aggression in the west against the Sunni Ottomans led ta a Safavid defeat northwest of Tabriz in 1514. The defeat gave the Ottomans control of the region and forced the Safavid to move its capital from Tabriz eventually to Isfahan.

control of the region and forced the Safavid to move its capital from Tabriz eventually to Isfahan. 3. Isfahan was a magnificent, prosperous city built on trade and industry. By the seventeenth century it had a population of perhaps 600,000. The 3. Isfahan was a magnificent, prosperous city built on trade and industry. By the seventeenth century it had a population of perhaps 600,000. The city contained 162 mosques and 48 colleges and academies. In addition to 273 public baths, gardens, pools, and parks that dotted the landscape, city contained 162 mosques and 48 colleges and academies. In addition to 273 public baths, gardens, pools, and parks that dotted the landscape, there was a great open square 1680 feet by 522 feet. The two major sources of production were weaving and tile making. Factories employed there was a great open square 1680 feet by 522 feet. The two major sources of production were weaving and tile making. Factories employed 25,000 weavers who produced carpets, brocades, and silks. Glazed building tiles were produced by 300 imported Chinese potters. (Sydney 25,000 weavers who produced carpets, brocades, and silks. Glazed building tiles were produced by 300 imported Chinese potters. (Sydney Nettleton Fisher and William Ochsenwald, The Middle East, pp. 220-222) Nettleton Fisher and William Ochsenwald, The Middle East, pp. 220-222) 4. Isma'il's successor, Tahmasp I (1524-1576), proved to be weak and lost much of the territory to the powerful Ottoman forces of Suleiman I (15204. Isma'il's successor, Tahmasp I (1524-1576), proved to be weak and lost much of the territory to the powerful Ottoman forces of Suleiman I (15201566). The fortunes of the Safavid were revived by Shah Abbas I (1587-1629) who, with the aid of Europeans and a reorganized army, moved 1566). The fortunes of the Safavid were revived by Shah Abbas I (1587-1629) who, with the aid of Europeans and a reorganized army, moved against the Uzbeks and Turks to regain territories but was unable to hold them as war against the Ottomans lasted from the 1620s to 1638. A against the Uzbeks and Turks to regain territories but was unable to hold them as war against the Ottomans lasted from the 1620s to 1638. A succession of weak leaders after Abbas left the Safavids impotent. In 1722 Shah Hussein (1694-1722) was forced to abdicate as Sunni Afghans succession of weak leaders after Abbas left the Safavids impotent. In 1722 Shah Hussein (1694-1722) was forced to abdicate as Sunni Afghans captured Isfahan. Persia fell into political and social anarchy and the assassination of Nader Shah in 1747 ended the Safavid dynasty. captured Isfahan. Persia fell into political and social anarchy and the assassination of Nader Shah in 1747 ended the Safavid dynasty. Questions: Questions: 1. How did the Safavid expand their empire? 1. How did the Safavid expand their empire? 2. How does Isfahan illustrate the wealth of the Safavids? 2. How does Isfahan illustrate the wealth of the Safavids?

The Ottoman and Safavid Empires Ottoman Empire Suleiman the Magnificent Expansion Vienna, 1529 Battle of Lepanto, 1571 Centralized government, no primogeniture Dependence on the army Open society, Sunni Muslim Trade Patrons of the arts, buildings The Safavids Shii Islam Maintained Persian identity, permitted Arabs to retain own identity Primarily a peasant population Government organized on feudal lines Ghulams (slaves) Mullahs exercised power Manufacturing and trade Architecture, Fine Arts, and Literature War between Ottomans and Safavids Religious differences Peace and established boundaries, 1639

Renaissance Centers Renaissance Centers 1. As part of the Carolingian Renaissance, several cathedral schools and libraries were established throughout the Charlemagnes Empire. There 1. As part of the Carolingian Renaissance, several cathedral schools and libraries were established throughout the Charlemagnes Empire. There were only twenty such schools in 900 but by 1100 there were at least two hundred. The primary purpose of these was the education of priests. were only twenty such schools in 900 but by 1100 there were at least two hundred. The primary purpose of these was the education of priests. 2. The first European university was at Bologna that became a center for the study of law. The Emperor Frederick Barbarossa recognized it with a 2. The first European university was at Bologna that became a center for the study of law. The Emperor Frederick Barbarossa recognized it with a charter in 1158. The university was governed by a guild of students. Other law schools developed at Montpelier and Orleans in France and Oxford charter in 1158. The university was governed by a guild of students. Other law schools developed at Montpelier and Orleans in France and Oxford in England. in England. 3. In southern Italy at Salerno the first school of medicine was established. The scholars here were able to draw from the medical heritage of both 3. In southern Italy at Salerno the first school of medicine was established. The scholars here were able to draw from the medical heritage of both Islam and Byzantium. Islam and Byzantium. 4. In northern Europe the University of Paris became the first recognized university. In 1200 Philip Augustus accorded formal recognition. The first 4. In northern Europe the University of Paris became the first recognized university. In 1200 Philip Augustus accorded formal recognition. The first teachers at the university received their licenses to teach from the cathedral school at Notre Dame. By the thirteenth century there were about 7,000 teachers at the university received their licenses to teach from the cathedral school at Notre Dame. By the thirteenth century there were about 7,000 students at the university. students at the university. 5. A number of students and masters left Paris and started their own university at Oxford, England, in 1208. Likewise, Cambridge University was 5. A number of students and masters left Paris and started their own university at Oxford, England, in 1208. Likewise, Cambridge University was formed in 1209 when students and masters left Oxford. formed in 1209 when students and masters left Oxford.

6. The first university on German soil was established in 1385 at Heidelberg. 6. The first university on German soil was established in 1385 at Heidelberg. 7. Medieval philosophers drew nourishment from the translations coming from Spain and Sicily where the Islamic world was already acquainted with 7. Medieval philosophers drew nourishment from the translations coming from Spain and Sicily where the Islamic world was already acquainted with the Greek and Roman writers. Toledo was a center for the translation of works from Arabic to Latin. the Greek and Roman writers. Toledo was a center for the translation of works from Arabic to Latin. Questions: Questions: 1. What role did Charlemagne play in the preservation and the transmission of knowledge? 1. What role did Charlemagne play in the preservation and the transmission of knowledge? 2. How were new universities formed? 2. How were new universities formed? Renaissance Centers Renaissance Europe Birthplace in Italy in the city-states Trade and early modern capitalism Affluent middle and upper class in the cities Humanism Francesco Petrarca (Petrarch) Giovanni Boccaccio Recovery of ancient manuscripts Printing Women Few learned women, mostly daughters of aristocrats

Isotta Nogarola Christine de Pizan The Italian States in the Fifteenth Century The Italian States in the Fifteenth Century 1. Due to the transfer of the papacy to Avignon (1309-1377), control over the Papal States was nominal. Used to their advantage, several territories 1. Due to the transfer of the papacy to Avignon (1309-1377), control over the Papal States was nominal. Used to their advantage, several territories and cities achieved independence from papal authority. and cities achieved independence from papal authority. 2. Italian cities, especially Genoa, Venice and Pisa, enjoyed considerable economic success after the Crusades. The trade of Venice extended to 2. Italian cities, especially Genoa, Venice and Pisa, enjoyed considerable economic success after the Crusades. The trade of Venice extended to England and the Netherlands where it competed with the Hanseatic League of northern Germany. Venice lost its advantage in northern Europe England and the Netherlands where it competed with the Hanseatic League of northern Germany. Venice lost its advantage in northern Europe when all of Italy was hard hit by the plague. when all of Italy was hard hit by the plague. 3. After the plague, shortages of workers led the Italians to introduce slavery on a large scale. Florence and Venice became major slave importers, 3. After the plague, shortages of workers led the Italians to introduce slavery on a large scale. Florence and Venice became major slave importers, but Venice controlled the trade. By the end of the fifteenth century, however, slavery was in decline. but Venice controlled the trade. By the end of the fifteenth century, however, slavery was in decline. 4. Florence was governed by a merchant oligarchy that maintained the appearance of a republic. In 1434 the oligarchy was taken over by Cosimo 4. Florence was governed by a merchant oligarchy that maintained the appearance of a republic. In 1434 the oligarchy was taken over by Cosimo de' Medici who continued the facade of a republic. Likewise, Venice was a republic in name but run by an oligarchy of merchant-aristocrats. The de' Medici who continued the facade of a republic. Likewise, Venice was a republic in name but run by an oligarchy of merchant-aristocrats. The Republic of Milan was ruled by the Sforza family. Republic of Milan was ruled by the Sforza family. 5. Florence was a center of wool production. The Medici family expanded from cloth production into commerce and banking. Soon the family

5. Florence was a center of wool production. The Medici family expanded from cloth production into commerce and banking. Soon the family became the greatest banking house in Europe with numerous branches throughout the continent. became the greatest banking house in Europe with numerous branches throughout the continent. 6. Humanism was best received in Florence where it came to be tied to Florentine civic spirit and pride. Spreading beyond Florence, it reflected the 6. Humanism was best received in Florence where it came to be tied to Florentine civic spirit and pride. Spreading beyond Florence, it reflected the values of an urban society, especially concern over government. A humanist school focusing on the liberal arts was established at Mantua, in the values of an urban society, especially concern over government. A humanist school focusing on the liberal arts was established at Mantua, in the Duchy of Modena, in 1423. Duchy of Modena, in 1423. 7. The expansion of Venice at the end of the fourteenth century was an effort to protect its food supply and overland trade routes. This scared Milan 7. The expansion of Venice at the end of the fourteenth century was an effort to protect its food supply and overland trade routes. This scared Milan and Florence who feared Venetian growth was a sign of the future. Such fears ultimately led the Italian states to agree to the Peace of Lodi in 1454 and Florence who feared Venetian growth was a sign of the future. Such fears ultimately led the Italian states to agree to the Peace of Lodi in 1454 that sought to maintain a balance of power. that sought to maintain a balance of power. 8. The beginning of the end for the Italian Renaissance came in 1494 when Milan invited France to intervene in the problems it was having with 8. The beginning of the end for the Italian Renaissance came in 1494 when Milan invited France to intervene in the problems it was having with Naples (under Spanish control). When Naples was occupied the other city-states turned to Spain for help. For the next three decades Italy was a Naples (under Spanish control). When Naples was occupied the other city-states turned to Spain for help. For the next three decades Italy was a battleground for the two powers. Eventually Spain emerged victorious. battleground for the two powers. Eventually Spain emerged victorious. Question: Question: 1. Why was the Renaissance centered in Italy? What caused its decay? 1. Why was the Renaissance centered in Italy? What caused its decay?

The Italian States in the Fifteenth Century Renaissance Art in Italy Inspiration from classified models Depict nature, human beauty, family Leonardo de Vinci Raphael Sanzio Michelangelo Buonarroti Donatello Renaissance outside of Italy Desiderius Erasmus Chaucer Michael de Montaingne Franois Rabalais Miguel de Cervantes William Shakespeare Europe, the Near East, and North Africa in the Renaissance Europe, the Near East, and North Africa in the Renaissance 1. By 1438 the position of Holy Roman Emperor was held by the Habsburg family that possessed lands along the Danube, collectively called 1. By 1438 the position of Holy Roman Emperor was held by the Habsburg family that possessed lands along the Danube, collectively called Austria. Maximilien I (1493-1519) of the Habsburgs married Mary of Burgundy in 1477 thereby bringing to Austria parts of Bohemia and Hungary, Austria. Maximilien I (1493-1519) of the Habsburgs married Mary of Burgundy in 1477 thereby bringing to Austria parts of Bohemia and Hungary, lands in east central France (Franche-Comte and Luxembourg), and a large part of the Low Countries. lands in east central France (Franche-Comte and Luxembourg), and a large part of the Low Countries. 2. A monarchical union was created in Spain when Ferdinand of Aragon (1479-1516) and Isabella of Castile (1479-1505) were married in 1469.

2. A monarchical union was created in Spain when Ferdinand of Aragon (1479-1516) and Isabella of Castile (1479-1505) were married in 1469. Their aggressiveness was responsible for the expulsion of the Muslims from Granada and the conquest of Navarre. Moreover, the marriage of their Their aggressiveness was responsible for the expulsion of the Muslims from Granada and the conquest of Navarre. Moreover, the marriage of their daughter Joanna to Philip of Burgundy made it possible for their son Charles to inherit a unified Spain, its New World possessions, the Italian daughter Joanna to Philip of Burgundy made it possible for their son Charles to inherit a unified Spain, its New World possessions, the Italian possessions of Sicily, Sardinia, and Kingdom of Naples. In addition, Charles would gain from his grandfather, Maximilien I of Austria, southern possessions of Sicily, Sardinia, and Kingdom of Naples. In addition, Charles would gain from his grandfather, Maximilien I of Austria, southern Germany and Austria and from his grandmother, Mary of Burgundy, the Low Countries and Franche-Comte. Germany and Austria and from his grandmother, Mary of Burgundy, the Low Countries and Franche-Comte. 3. Louis XI of France (1461-83) was consumed by a feud with the dukes of Burgundy who had established the wealthiest principality of Europe. 3. Louis XI of France (1461-83) was consumed by a feud with the dukes of Burgundy who had established the wealthiest principality of Europe. When Duke Charles II was killed in the battle of Nancy in 1477, he left no heirs. In 1482 Louis successfully pressed his claim to Burgundy, When Duke Charles II was killed in the battle of Nancy in 1477, he left no heirs. In 1482 Louis successfully pressed his claim to Burgundy, Picardy, and the Boulonnais. These gains in addition to the acquisition of Anjou and the French segment of Bar in 1480, Maine, the kingdom of Picardy, and the Boulonnais. These gains in addition to the acquisition of Anjou and the French segment of Bar in 1480, Maine, the kingdom of Provence, and Brittany gave France borders similar to those of today. Provence, and Brittany gave France borders similar to those of today. 4. In eastern Europe, consolidation of territory was complicated by the struggles between monarchs and the nobility. In Russia (Principality of 4. In eastern Europe, consolidation of territory was complicated by the struggles between monarchs and the nobility. In Russia (Principality of Moscow) , however, a new state was born by 1480 as a result of Ivan III (1462-1505) taking advantage of the dissension among the Mongols. Moscow) , however, a new state was born by 1480 as a result of Ivan III (1462-1505) taking advantage of the dissension among the Mongols. This was followed by annexation of the lands of Lithuania-Poland and the territories around Kiev and Smolensk. This was followed by annexation of the lands of Lithuania-Poland and the territories around Kiev and Smolensk. 5. In 1453 the Byzantine Empire disappeared as Constantinople fell to the Ottomans. 5. In 1453 the Byzantine Empire disappeared as Constantinople fell to the Ottomans. Questions:

Questions: 1. Why was the Renaissance centered in Italy? 1. Why was the Renaissance centered in Italy? 2. What caused the decay of the Renaissance? 2. What caused the decay of the Renaissance? Europe, the Near East, and North Africa in the Renaissance Nation States Emergence of powerful kings Kings need to generate sources of income New towns gain privileges Abandon feudal levies and create a powerful army Development of bureaucracies France Devastated by the Black Death and the Hundred Years War, 13371453 Louis XI, 1461-1483, unites France England War of the Roses, 1455-1485 Henry VII, 1485-1509 Spain Reconquest against the Muslims King Ferdinand (Aragon) and Queen Isabella (Castile) Granada, 1492

Protestant Reformation Great Schism Council of Constance, 1414-1417 Abuses of the Church Martin Luther Ninety-five Theses, October 31, 1517 Diet of Worms, 1521 Salvation by faith Catholics, Protestants, and Orthodox Christians in Europe by 1550 Catholics, Protestants, and Orthodox Christians in Europe by 1550 1. Wittenberg was the home to Martin Luther where he taught at the local university. In 1517 Luther posted on the door of the local church ninety1. Wittenberg was the home to Martin Luther where he taught at the local university. In 1517 Luther posted on the door of the local church ninetyfive theses against the sale of indulgences. Luther presented his views in 1521 to the imperial diet at Worms called by Emperor Charles V (1519five theses against the sale of indulgences. Luther presented his views in 1521 to the imperial diet at Worms called by Emperor Charles V (15191556). Refusing to recant his criticism or beliefs, Luther was placed under imperial ban. 1556). Refusing to recant his criticism or beliefs, Luther was placed under imperial ban. 2. One of the primary tools for diffusing the ideas of Luther were the students who attended the University of Wittenberg. Between 1520 and 1560 2. One of the primary tools for diffusing the ideas of Luther were the students who attended the University of Wittenberg. Between 1520 and 1560 some 16,000 students were graduated. As they returned to their homes throughout Germany they spread the ideas of Luther. some 16,000 students were graduated. As they returned to their homes throughout Germany they spread the ideas of Luther. 3. In the 1520s as the Union of Kalmar collapsed, Lutheranism appeared in Sweden, Denmark, and Norway. 3. In the 1520s as the Union of Kalmar collapsed, Lutheranism appeared in Sweden, Denmark, and Norway. 4. Ulrich Zwingli who preached in Zurich guided the Reformation in Switzerland. Divided between Catholics and Protestants, the Swiss fell into civil 4. Ulrich Zwingli who preached in Zurich guided the Reformation in Switzerland. Divided between Catholics and Protestants, the Swiss fell into civil war between 1529 and 1531. Zwingli's forces were routed and he was killed in 1531. war between 1529 and 1531. Zwingli's forces were routed and he was killed in 1531. 5. The teachings of the Anabaptists spread into southern Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. Seen by both Catholics and Lutherans as a threat, 5. The teachings of the Anabaptists spread into southern Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. Seen by both Catholics and Lutherans as a threat, the Anabaptists were virtually stamped out in Germany. Some of the survivors went to Mnster and proclaimed it the New Jerusalem. As they

the Anabaptists were virtually stamped out in Germany. Some of the survivors went to Mnster and proclaimed it the New Jerusalem. As they became radical millenarianist, Lutherans and Catholics increasingly became distrustful and a coalition recaptured the city in 1535. Not only were the became radical millenarianist, Lutherans and Catholics increasingly became distrustful and a coalition recaptured the city in 1535. Not only were the Anabaptists exterminated here but also tens of thousands were killed in Germany and the Low Countries. Anabaptists exterminated here but also tens of thousands were killed in Germany and the Low Countries. 6. In 1519 Huldrych Zwingli was named the people's priest by the Zurich city council. From this post he was able to guide religious reform in the city. 6. In 1519 Huldrych Zwingli was named the people's priest by the Zurich city council. From this post he was able to guide religious reform in the city. Zwingli saw no distinction between government of the Church and the state. The laws of God should guide both. Efforts by Zurich to export to the Zwingli saw no distinction between government of the Church and the state. The laws of God should guide both. Efforts by Zurich to export to the rest of Switzerland its reform resulted in conflict featuring the defeat and death of Zwingli in 1529 at Kappel. rest of Switzerland its reform resulted in conflict featuring the defeat and death of Zwingli in 1529 at Kappel. 7. In England the Reformation was political in nature as the Anglican Church was created for the purpose of Henry VIII (1509-1547) giving himself a 7. In England the Reformation was political in nature as the Anglican Church was created for the purpose of Henry VIII (1509-1547) giving himself a divorce from Catherine of Aragon. Henry became the head of the church but made few doctrinal changes. Under Henry's sickly son Edward VI divorce from Catherine of Aragon. Henry became the head of the church but made few doctrinal changes. Under Henry's sickly son Edward VI (1547-1553) the church drifted to Protestantism. Edward's successor, Mary (1553-1558), tried to move back to Catholicism and persecuted the (1547-1553) the church drifted to Protestantism. Edward's successor, Mary (1553-1558), tried to move back to Catholicism and persecuted the Protestants. Elizabeth I (1598-1603) who chose a middle course between Catholicism and Protestantism followed Mary. Protestants. Elizabeth I (1598-1603) who chose a middle course between Catholicism and Protestantism followed Mary. 8. John Calvin converted to Protestantism in 1533. By 1536 he was in Geneva and would influence that city until his death in 1564. The central 8. John Calvin converted to Protestantism in 1533. By 1536 he was in Geneva and would influence that city until his death in 1564. The central location of Geneva allowed easy dissemination of Calvinism. In southern and western France, the Huguenots received Calvinism and it penetrated location of Geneva allowed easy dissemination of Calvinism. In southern and western France, the Huguenots received Calvinism and it penetrated England as persecuted Protestants returned after the death of Mary. In Scotland John Knox established it. By the 1550s Calvinism had eclipsed England as persecuted Protestants returned after the death of Mary. In Scotland John Knox established it. By the 1550s Calvinism had eclipsed Lutheranism among the Polish, Hungarian, and Bohemian nobility thereby facilitating its growth.

Lutheranism among the Polish, Hungarian, and Bohemian nobility thereby facilitating its growth. 9. The Council of Trent, convened by the Church, met from 1545 to 1563 but failed to reconcile Protestant and Catholic differences. 9. The Council of Trent, convened by the Church, met from 1545 to 1563 but failed to reconcile Protestant and Catholic differences. Questions: Questions: 1. Why did Protestantism grow so rapidly in the sixteenth century? 1. Why did Protestantism grow so rapidly in the sixteenth century? 2. Why were radical sects such as the Anabaptists disliked by both Catholics and Protestants? 2. Why were radical sects such as the Anabaptists disliked by both Catholics and Protestants? Catholics, Protestants, and Orthodox Christians in Europe by 1550 Rapid Spread of Lutheranism Revolt when Church in decline Writings of Erasmus The printing press Half German rulers supported Luther as a way to resist Emperor Charles I Peasants Revolt, 1524-1525 Luther not a social or economic reformer Peace of Augsburg, 1555 Reformation after Luther Ulrich Zwingli John Calvin

Institutes of the Christian Religion, 1536 Church and state independent Predestination Pious life John Knox Calvinist English Religious Difficulties Henry VIII wants to annul marriage Act of Supremacy, 1534 Edward VI, 1547-1553 Mary I, 1553-1558, tries to restore capitalism Elizabeth I, 1558-1603 Women and the Reformation Catholics closed the ministry to women Value and sanctity of marriage Divorce Roman Catholic or Counter-Reformation Council of Trent, 1545-1563 Society of Jesus, Igantius Loyola Religious warfare Islamic North Africa and Christian Ethiopia Except Morocco, North African Islamic states incorporated into Ottoman Empire Ethiopia threatened in early 16th century by Ahmad ibn

Ghazi Appeal to the Portuguese who send an expeditionary force that is crushed West African Kingdoms Oyo Empire Benin Empire Ewuare the Great Akan states Central Africa Kongo kingdom European Entry into Africa Portuguese exploration of the African coast Vasco da Gama reaches India, 1498 Establish fortified trading posts Fort Sa Jorge Luanda and Fort Jesus Portuguese challenged by other Europeans Dutch Settlement in South Africa Table Bay, 1652 Dutch East India Company brings colonists, 1657 Racism The Slave Trade The Slave Trade 1. The first European enslavement of Africans came in 1441 when the Portuguese took back to Lagos for sale twelve captive Berbers from south of 1. The first European enslavement of Africans came in 1441 when the Portuguese took back to Lagos for sale twelve captive Berbers from south of

what is now Morocco. Because the Portuguese came to control the most important slave collection points of the Cape Verde Islands 1 So Tome, So what is now Morocco. Because the Portuguese came to control the most important slave collection points of the Cape Verde Islands 1 So Tome, So Jorge da Mina, and Angola, they were involved in the international slave trade from its inception. Jorge da Mina, and Angola, they were involved in the international slave trade from its inception. 2. In 1501 the Spanish government issued its first laws for the export of slaves to America. At this time the slaves were more often white (Spain and 2. In 1501 the Spanish government issued its first laws for the export of slaves to America. At this time the slaves were more often white (Spain and North Africa) than black. In 1505 a ship from Spain arrived in Hispaniola carrying seventeen Hispanicised black slaves. The slave trade became North Africa) than black. In 1505 a ship from Spain arrived in Hispaniola carrying seventeen Hispanicised black slaves. The slave trade became massive when in 1510 royal orders were given for the transport of slaves to the Indies. In 1518 the first cargo of slaves arrived directly from Africa to massive when in 1510 royal orders were given for the transport of slaves to the Indies. In 1518 the first cargo of slaves arrived directly from Africa to Hispaniola. In 1513 the Spanish crown began licensing the slave trade to the Indies through contracts (asientos). Licensed slaves were to be taken Hispaniola. In 1513 the Spanish crown began licensing the slave trade to the Indies through contracts (asientos). Licensed slaves were to be taken from Guinea or any other part of Africa and shipped to Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Yucatan, or New Spain. The Portuguese were involved in from Guinea or any other part of Africa and shipped to Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Yucatan, or New Spain. The Portuguese were involved in contraband slave trade to Spanish possessions until 1580 when the Portuguese crown fell to Spain and the activity became legal. contraband slave trade to Spanish possessions until 1580 when the Portuguese crown fell to Spain and the activity became legal. 3. The importation of black slaves into Brazil was legalized in 1549 but blacks were not imported in any great numbers until 1570. The sources of 3. The importation of black slaves into Brazil was legalized in 1549 but blacks were not imported in any great numbers until 1570. The sources of Portuguese slaves to Brazil were the port of So Paulo de Luanda and Mozambique. Portuguese slaves to Brazil were the port of So Paulo de Luanda and Mozambique. 4. Although English colonies in the Caribbean and later on the North American coast faced similar shortages of labor as the Spanish and Portuguese, 4. Although English colonies in the Caribbean and later on the North American coast faced similar shortages of labor as the Spanish and Portuguese, they relied on indentured servants to fill the void. Nevertheless, black slaves were imported. In 1619, seventeen slaves were brought to Jamestown they relied on indentured servants to fill the void. Nevertheless, black slaves were imported. In 1619, seventeen slaves were brought to Jamestown by the Dutch. By 1650 black slavery was well entrenched in the English Caribbean and mainland colonies. by the Dutch. By 1650 black slavery was well entrenched in the English Caribbean and mainland colonies.

5. A typical slaving expedition leaving Spain in the sixteenth century could last from eighteen months to four years. Depending on the state of the 5. A typical slaving expedition leaving Spain in the sixteenth century could last from eighteen months to four years. Depending on the state of the local markets, it could take up to a year to obtain a cargo of slaves. Once the slaves had been procured, it would take two months or more to cross local markets, it could take up to a year to obtain a cargo of slaves. Once the slaves had been procured, it would take two months or more to cross the Atlantic to the Americas, depending on the currents, winds, and destination. the Atlantic to the Americas, depending on the currents, winds, and destination. 6. Only about two percent of the slaves destined for America came from Mozambique. About 23 percent of the slaves came from Angola and the 6. Only about two percent of the slaves destined for America came from Mozambique. About 23 percent of the slaves came from Angola and the Congo, 75 percent from Senegambia and the Gold Coast. Sixty percent of the slaves were destined for the West Indies and Spanish America, 35 Congo, 75 percent from Senegambia and the Gold Coast. Sixty percent of the slaves were destined for the West Indies and Spanish America, 35 percent for Brazil, and only 5 percent to British North America/United States. Seventy percent of all Portuguese slaves came from Angola. percent for Brazil, and only 5 percent to British North America/United States. Seventy percent of all Portuguese slaves came from Angola. Question: Question: 1. From where did the slave trade originate and who controlled it? 1. From where did the slave trade originate and who controlled it? The Slave Trade Slave Trade 10-15 million Africans forcibly removed to America First African slaves shipped from Spain to Latin America, 1501 Overcrowded vessels, 15% mortality Angola Coastal areas profit, interior weakened or destroyed European Exploration of the Western Hemisphere

Columbus makes landfall in the Bahamas, October 12, 1492 Encomienda Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494 Pedro Cabral lands in Brazil, 1500 Ferdinand Magellan-Juan Sebastan del Cano around the world, 15191521 Spanish and Portuguese Voyages in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Spanish and Portuguese Voyages in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries 1. The Silk Road ran from Changan to Samarkand and to the Arabian Sea. Goods such as silk, porcelain, and spices would make their way to the 1. The Silk Road ran from Changan to Samarkand and to the Arabian Sea. Goods such as silk, porcelain, and spices would make their way to the eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. Dominating this trade on the Mediterranean end were the Italian city states, especially Venice. Jealousy eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. Dominating this trade on the Mediterranean end were the Italian city states, especially Venice. Jealousy over the wealth generated by the trade inspired Portugal and Spain to find an alternate route to interdict the trade. over the wealth generated by the trade inspired Portugal and Spain to find an alternate route to interdict the trade. 2. Portuguese ships (with northern influences) were designed for the rough seas of the Atlantic while ships of the Mediterranean were generally 2. Portuguese ships (with northern influences) were designed for the rough seas of the Atlantic while ships of the Mediterranean were generally intended for its calmer waters. Nevertheless, ships were small which placed limitations on the amount of food and water that could be stored. It was intended for its calmer waters. Nevertheless, ships were small which placed limitations on the amount of food and water that could be stored. It was this factor that restricted long voyages. this factor that restricted long voyages. 3. Two elements contributed to Portugal's interest in Africa. First, they wished to bypass the Muslim middlemen in the African gold trade with 3. Two elements contributed to Portugal's interest in Africa. First, they wished to bypass the Muslim middlemen in the African gold trade with Europe. With limited resources in gold, much of Europe's demands were filled by gold mined in western Africa. Secondly, the Portuguese hoped to Europe. With limited resources in gold, much of Europe's demands were filled by gold mined in western Africa. Secondly, the Portuguese hoped to find the fabled Prester John, a Christian African king, with whom they hoped to ally to defeat the Muslims. find the fabled Prester John, a Christian African king, with whom they hoped to ally to defeat the Muslims.

4. Vasco da Gama successfully made the round trip from Portugal to Calicut, India, in 1497-98. Significantly, he had to force the Indians to trade 4. Vasco da Gama successfully made the round trip from Portugal to Calicut, India, in 1497-98. Significantly, he had to force the Indians to trade since the quality of the European goods was crude. After this first contact, every March a fleet was sent to India. By force, the Portuguese further since the quality of the European goods was crude. After this first contact, every March a fleet was sent to India. By force, the Portuguese further opened up Goa, Malacca, and Macao. opened up Goa, Malacca, and Macao. 5. The long and difficult route of Bartholomew Daz (1487-88) along western Africa to the Cape of Good Hope was improved upon by Vasco da 5. The long and difficult route of Bartholomew Daz (1487-88) along western Africa to the Cape of Good Hope was improved upon by Vasco da Gama (1497-99) who searched far out into the southern Atlantic to find favorable winds. This technique became common practice and led Pedro Gama (1497-99) who searched far out into the southern Atlantic to find favorable winds. This technique became common practice and led Pedro Alvares Cabral to encounter the coast of Brazil in 1500. Amerigo Vespucci accompanied many of the subsequent voyages to South America. Alvares Cabral to encounter the coast of Brazil in 1500. Amerigo Vespucci accompanied many of the subsequent voyages to South America. 6. The opening of the Orient by the Portuguese provided Europe with Asian goods that had been cut to a trickle by the conquests of the Turks. It also 6. The opening of the Orient by the Portuguese provided Europe with Asian goods that had been cut to a trickle by the conquests of the Turks. It also meant that the Italian merchants could be cut out of the eastern trade. With commerce now concentrated on the Atlantic ports, the importance of meant that the Italian merchants could be cut out of the eastern trade. With commerce now concentrated on the Atlantic ports, the importance of Italy as a center of commerce declined. Italy as a center of commerce declined. 7. Christopher Columbus offered his services to Portugal, France, and England as well as Spain. In part, approval was a result of miscalculating 7. Christopher Columbus offered his services to Portugal, France, and England as well as Spain. In part, approval was a result of miscalculating the distance between Asia and Portugal. This was important because no ships of the day had the capability to sail the true distance. As it was, it the distance between Asia and Portugal. This was important because no ships of the day had the capability to sail the true distance. As it was, it took 36 days to sail from the Canary Islands to landfall at San Salvador Island. The discovery by Columbus led to the Treaty of Tordesillas in took 36 days to sail from the Canary Islands to landfall at San Salvador Island. The discovery by Columbus led to the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494 that divided the newly discovered worlds into Portuguese and Spanish spheres of influence. 1494 that divided the newly discovered worlds into Portuguese and Spanish spheres of influence.

8. In 1497 King Henry VII (1485-1509) of England commissioned John Cabot, a Genoese merchant living in London, to find the elusive northwest 8. In 1497 King Henry VII (1485-1509) of England commissioned John Cabot, a Genoese merchant living in London, to find the elusive northwest passage. Although Cabot failed, the voyage did take him to Newfoundland and provided the later basis for English claims to North America. passage. Although Cabot failed, the voyage did take him to Newfoundland and provided the later basis for English claims to North America. 9. In 1519 Ferdinand Magellan, commissioned by Spain, took a fleet south and west seeking to find a direct route to Asia. His quest led to a 9. In 1519 Ferdinand Magellan, commissioned by Spain, took a fleet south and west seeking to find a direct route to Asia. His quest led to a dramatic voyage around the world. Nevertheless, Magellan was killed in the Philippines. In 1522 the only surviving ship under Magellan's dramatic voyage around the world. Nevertheless, Magellan was killed in the Philippines. In 1522 the only surviving ship under Magellan's navigator Sebastian del Cano returned to Spain with fifteen survivors. navigator Sebastian del Cano returned to Spain with fifteen survivors. Spanish and Portuguese Voyages in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Questions: Questions: 1. What restrictions hampered European exploration? 1. What restrictions hampered European exploration? 2. Consider the significance of each of the voyages portrayed on the map. 2. Consider the significance of each of the voyages portrayed on the map. : : The Strait of Magellan near Cape Horn Spanish Conquests in Mexico and South America

Hernn Corts to Mexico, 1519 Defeat of the Aztecs, 15212 Francisco Pizarro to Peru, 1532 Use of mita in the former Inka empire New mestizo reace Rival Empires in the Americas English, French, and Dutch governments encourage investment in overseas commerce Northwest Passage English colony in North America, 1607; Jamestown European Possessions in the West Indies European Possessions in the West Indies 1. The island of Hispaniola was occupied by the Spanish in 1492 when Columbus was forced to establish the settlement of La Navidad at the 1. The island of Hispaniola was occupied by the Spanish in 1492 when Columbus was forced to establish the settlement of La Navidad at the eastern extreme of the island following the grounding of the Santa Maria. Santo Domingo was established in 1496 and served not only as the eastern extreme of the island following the grounding of the Santa Maria. Santo Domingo was established in 1496 and served not only as the Spanish capital of Hispaniola but also the first permanent European settlement in the New World. By 1606, so many colonists had been drawn to Spanish capital of Hispaniola but also the first permanent European settlement in the New World. By 1606, so many colonists had been drawn to Peru and Mexico that the Spanish crown ordered the few colonists left to move closer to Santo Domingo. French, English, and Dutch pirates took Peru and Mexico that the Spanish crown ordered the few colonists left to move closer to Santo Domingo. French, English, and Dutch pirates took over the abandoned northern and western coasts. Pirates especially used the island of Tortuga to raid Spanish gold and silver shipping. Unable to over the abandoned northern and western coasts. Pirates especially used the island of Tortuga to raid Spanish gold and silver shipping. Unable to drive the pirates out, Spain recognized French control of the western third of the island. drive the pirates out, Spain recognized French control of the western third of the island. 2. The Isthmus of Panama was occupied by Spain in 1509, the same year as Puerto Rico was conquered. In 1511, Cuba was occupied, followed by

2. The Isthmus of Panama was occupied by Spain in 1509, the same year as Puerto Rico was conquered. In 1511, Cuba was occupied, followed by the invasion of Mexico in 1519. Florida was claimed for Spain in 1513 and the first permanent settlement, St. Augustine, was established in 1565. the invasion of Mexico in 1519. Florida was claimed for Spain in 1513 and the first permanent settlement, St. Augustine, was established in 1565. 3. Jamaica was claimed by Columbus for Spain in 1494 but was used only as a supply base. In 1655 the British invaded the island and by 1669 3. Jamaica was claimed by Columbus for Spain in 1494 but was used only as a supply base. In 1655 the British invaded the island and by 1669 controlled it. During the 1670s, British pirates used Jamaica to attack Spanish ports and shipping. controlled it. During the 1670s, British pirates used Jamaica to attack Spanish ports and shipping. 4. British loggers first arrived in Belize in 1638 and shortly thereafter British settlers arrived. Consistently, the settlers had to fight off the Spanish 4. British loggers first arrived in Belize in 1638 and shortly thereafter British settlers arrived. Consistently, the settlers had to fight off the Spanish from nearby territories. from nearby territories. 5. Although Columbus first touched land in the Bahamas (perhaps Watlings Island) in 1492, the Spanish did not settle. The Bahamas remained 5. Although Columbus first touched land in the Bahamas (perhaps Watlings Island) in 1492, the Spanish did not settle. The Bahamas remained uninhabited by the Europeans until the mid 1600s when the British began settling. Spain challenged the British in the late 1600s but was uninhabited by the Europeans until the mid 1600s when the British began settling. Spain challenged the British in the late 1600s but was unsuccessful. In 1717 the Bahamas became a British colony. unsuccessful. In 1717 the Bahamas became a British colony. 6. In 1682 Louisiana was claimed for France by Robert Cavalier, Sieur de la Salle. The area became a royal colony in 1699. 6. In 1682 Louisiana was claimed for France by Robert Cavalier, Sieur de la Salle. The area became a royal colony in 1699. 7. On the third voyage (1498-1500), Columbus anchored at Trinidad and from there sailed along the Venezuelan coast. The Spanish Main, as 7. On the third voyage (1498-1500), Columbus anchored at Trinidad and from there sailed along the Venezuelan coast. The Spanish Main, as northern South America was called, was delayed in occupation until after 1535 due to the hostile natives and forbidding jungles. The Spanish did northern South America was called, was delayed in occupation until after 1535 due to the hostile natives and forbidding jungles. The Spanish did occupy Curaao in 1527 but the Dutch captured the Antilles area in 1634 and soon settled on the other islands. In 1667 the Dutch took control of the occupy Curaao in 1527 but the Dutch captured the Antilles area in 1634 and soon settled on the other islands. In 1667 the Dutch took control of the British territory on the northeast coast of South America (modern Surinam) as part of the settlement over New York.

British territory on the northeast coast of South America (modern Surinam) as part of the settlement over New York. Question: Question: 1. How did the Europeans divide the newly discovered lands of the West Indies and the mainland? Were there any impediments? 1. How did the Europeans divide the newly discovered lands of the West Indies and the mainland? Were there any impediments? European Possessions in the West Indies

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