VIRUSOLOIJA (VRUSI UN RPUSHROMOSOMU ENTISKIE ELEMENTI) VRUSU UN

VIRUSOLOIJA (VRUSI UN RPUSHROMOSOMU ENTISKIE ELEMENTI) VRUSU UN

VIRUSOLOIJA (VRUSI UN RPUSHROMOSOMU ENTISKIE ELEMENTI) VRUSU UN RPUSHROMOSOMU ELEMENTU GRUPAS Transpozoni un plazmdas Transpozoni

Visprjs raksturojums - rekombincijas veidi DNS transpozoni Retrotranspozoni Retropozoni Transpozonu visprjs raksturojums

Rekombincijas veidi: Visprj jeb homoloisk rekombincija (meijoze, garas homologas DNA secbas) Sait-specifisk

(starp divm noteiktm specifiskm DNA secbm, piem., un E.coli) Transpozcija jeb nelikumg rekombincija

illegitimate (viena DNS secba tiek iestarpinta cit bez kdas homoloijas prasbm, DNS pavedieni tiek prrauti un atkal savienoti) Transpozoni 2x103 - 4x104 b.p. garas NS molekulas, spj prvietoties no viens integrcijas vietas uz citu viena replikona robes vai starp

replikoniem n, nes gan prvietoans funkcijai nepiecieamos gnus, gan ar papildus funkciju, piem., pretantibiotiku rezistences gnus. Transpozonu atklana 1949.g. - Nestabils graudu krsas

mutcijas kukurzai; B. McClintock 1963. - 1965. g.g. transpozcijas baktriju gal operon, P. Starlinger, S. Cohen DNS transpozoni Struktra

si, invertti DNA atkrtojumi galos Gni Transpozze (tnpA) Rezolvze

(tnpR ) Prvietoans veids DNS form; +/ - replikcija Piemri

P-elementi (Drosophila) Ac-Ds (Zea mais) Tn3; I S1 (Escherichia coli) 60.-tie gadi: Shapiro (ASV), Satrlinger (Vcija) transpozcija baktrijs

Baktriju vienkrie DNS transpozoni: IS1 - 768 bp; IS2 - 1442 bp; IS5 - 1195 bp; Tn 1000 - 9.5 kbp Inserciju (IS) elementi

750 - 1x104 b.p. garas DNS molekulas, spj prvietoties no viens integrcijas vietas uz citu viena replikona robes vai starp replikoniem n, nes tikai prvietoans funkcijai nepiecieamos gnus. Baktriju vienkrie DNS transpozoni:

Tn3 (ampicilna rezistences) grupa Saliktie transpozoni (baktrijas): Tn 5 (KmR)invertti flankjoo IS elementu atkrtojumi; Tn 9 (Cm R)tiei flankjoo IS elementu atkrtojumi;

Tn 10 (TcR) Saliktu transpozonu veidoans Transpozonu visprjs raksturojums Transpozcijas veidi:

Replikatv transpozcija transpozons prvieto savu kopiju cit DNA rajon, saglabjot ar veco lokalizciju (kointegrts, resolvze Tn 3; IS1); Konservatv transpozcija transpozons prvietojas no vienas vietas genom uz citu,

neatstjot mutcijas donora sait (Tn 5; IS1?). Saimnieka genoma secbu atkrtojumu veidoans transpozcijas proces Augu transpozoni

Nature Rev. Genetics, May, 2002 Autonomie un atkargie replikatvie transpozoni Miniature Inverted-repeats Transposable Elements; MITE

Nature Rev. Genetics, May, 2002 Augu vienkrie DNS transpozoni: Ripojo gredzena tipa ssDNS transpozoni helitroni (2001) Vladimir V. Kapitonov and Jerzy Jurka, TRENDS in Genetics Vol.23

No.10 Ripojo gredzena tipa ssDNS transpozoni helitroni The RepHel protein composed of the Rep and SF1 DNA Hel domains is shown in red, and the ssDNAbinding RPA is shown

in blue. In some species, the RepHel protein contains additional domains: apurinic EN (in black); cysteine protease (CPR, in green); and

different types of zinc fingers (ZF, in brown). Saliktu transpozonu veidoans ar helitronu ldzdalbu synthesisdependent

strand annealing Virofgi, polintoni, transpovironi: vrusveida DNS transpozoni Yutin et al. Virology Journal 2013, 10:158 http://www.virologyj.com/content/10/1/158

Bernard La Scola et al. The virophage as a unique parasite of the giant mimivirus Nature 455, 100-104 (September 4, 2008) Virofgi, polintoni, transpovironi tektivrusi N. Yutin, S. Shevchenko, V. Kapitonov, M. Krupovic, E. Koonin

A novel group of diverse Polinton-like viruses discovered by metagenome analysis Yutin et al. BMC Biology (2015) 13:95 DOI 10.1186/s12915-015-0207-4 Adenovruss k transpozons: integrcija genom veido >5000 bp garus IR

N.Hochstein, I.Muiznieks, L.Mangel, H. Brondke, W. Doerfler JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY, May 2007, p. 53495361 Adenovruss k transpozons: integrta vrusa DNS veido ldz > 400 kbp garu cilpu

Transpozciju paierobeoanas spja un imunitte Hibrdu disenze / sugu veidoans modelis. Drozoflas.

P+ lnija nes Pelementu; P- lnija - bez P-elementa. Hibrdu disenze Hibrdu disenze

Hibrdu disenzes fenotipu veido P elementu transpozcija P lnijas tviu un M lnijas mtu krustoan iegtajs embrionlajs ns. Transpozcija nenotiek somtiskajs ns, jo tikai embrionlajs ns veidojas transpozzes mRNS specifiskais splaisings. Hibrdu disenze novrojama P lnijas tviu un M lnijas mtu krustoan, bet ne M lnijas tviu un P lnijas mtu (muas ar autonomu P elementu) krustoan, jo P lnijas mtu olas satur daudz represora protena, kas nepieauj transpozzes transkripciju. M lnijas mtu ols represora nav dod

iespju P lnijas tviu spermas transpozonu kustbai. Garie RNS transpozoni Struktra Gni

Gari, tieie DNA atkrtojumi galos Revertze, LTR, retrovrusiem ldzgi, bez env. Prvietoans veids

Ar RNA starpformu, no promotera LTR sastv Piemri Copia (Drosophila) Ty (Saccharomyces) Bs1 (Zea mais); THE-1 Retrotranspozoni

Transpozoni, kuru replikcijai nepiecieamas DNS-RNS-DNS stadijas, lai prvietotos pa genomu, kod aj proces piedaloos fermentu - atgriezenisko (reverso) transkriptzi - revertzi. sie RNS transpozoni

Struktra Gni Prvietoans veids Revertze

Ar RNA starpfor-mu, no promotera rpus Tn Piemri F-elementi (Drosophila) Lines (Homo sapiens) Cin4 (Zea mais)

Retrovrusiem ldzgie transpozoni Migrjoie gni, vrusu pdas cilvka genom. Iespjam vrusu loma evolcijas tempa patrinan. Saskaot (concerted)

evolcija. Transpozciju sprdzieni PLAZMDAS Visprgais raksturojums Klasifikcija: funkcijas replikcijas regulcija

nesavietojamba transmisibilitte Plazmdu visprgais raksturojums Gredzenveida, retos gadjumos lineri ekstrahromosomls dsDNS elementi, 3x103 - 1x106 b.p., kas

baktriju ns replicjas fiziski nesaistti ar nukleodu; kod nai nosacti nodergas entisks pabas; dareiz kod protenus, kas veido specifiskas morfoloiskas struktras (pilus, piocni) dareiz spj integrties saimnieknas genom (episomas)

Plazmdu atklana Dab sastopamo plazmdu garums ~ 3 - ~ 300 kbp. F faktors atklts 1946. g. (Lederberg&Tatum); termins plazmda 1952. g. (J.Lederberg) Plazmda - vruss Lizogns fgs P2 spj ierbt savu

olbaltumvielu apvalk plazmdu P4, prvrot to par vrusu; Epteina-Barra vruss vai -fgs, kas zaudjis integrcijai nepiecieamos gnus, spj eksistt n autonom form.

Lizogns fgs Baktriju vruss, kur spj eksistt k autonom, t ar hromosom integrt veid. Plazmdu DNS topoloija Plazmdu DNS topoloija

Plazmdu DNS topoloija Superspiralizcijas blvums Superspiralizci ja un gnu ekspresija

vektorplazmd s Plazmdu klasifikcija Funkcijas Fertilitte [ F, Hfr; F]

Rezistence [ R, rtf, modulr struktra] Kolicinogenitte [ColE, B, V, I, K, Clo]

Enteropatogenitte [K88; K98] Biodegradcija [TOL; XYL] Kriptisks plazmdas Rekombinants vektorplazmdas Fertilitte [ F, Hfr; F]

Konjugcijas proces no nas uz nu tiek prnests viens plazmdas DNS pavediens Rezistence [ R, rtf, modulr struktra] Rezistence, pret antibiotikm rezistento celmu izplatba klniks

Kolicinogenitte [ColE, B, V, I, K, Clo] Rekombinants plazmdas un vektorplazmdas gnu prnese un klonana Plazmdu klasifikcija Replikcija

Stingr kontrole [saskaoti ar nukleodu, neliels kopiju skaits] Atslbint kontrole [nesaskaoti ar nukleodu, liels kopiju skaits] Replikcijas inicicija ar RNS praimeru Replikcijas inicicija ar RNS praimeru

Replikcijas aktivittes negatva regulcija ar anti-sens RNS paldzbu Rekombinants plazmdas un vektorplazmdas gnu prnese un klonana Savienojamba:

nejaus sadaljums pie fiksta kopj skaita Plazmdu replikcijas stabilitte: Varbtba veidoties bezplazmdu nm, ja nav aktva plazmdu sadaljuma mehnisma ns, kas satur n plazmdu kopijas Plasmid Maintenance Stability

100 % of Ab rezistant cells 90 >40 80

70 40 60 50 2

40 6 30 20 10

0 1 3 6 10

20 40 Passages in non-selective media R 6-5

pSC101 pBR322 pBR329 Plazmdu replikcijas stabilitti raksturo auganas ciklu skaits barotn bez selektva spiediena, pc kura vl 50%

baktriju nu populcij ir saglabjui plazmdu Plazmdu replikcijas stabilitte: Rekombincijas sitmu, multimerizcijas efekts Plazmdu klasifikcija

Savienojamba Savienojambas grupas vairku plazmdu spja vienlaikus atrasties vien n C, FI FIII, H, I1, I2, J, L P, S, T, W Nesavienojambas grupa

Plazmdas FI FII FIII FIV I J

N O P Q T W F, R386

R1 Col B-K99, Col B-K166 R124 R62, R64, R483 (vismaz 5 apakgrupas) R391 R46 R724 RP4, RK2 RSF1010

R401 R388, S-a Savienojamba: Replikcijas faktori, Piestiprinans vietas pie nas membrnas

Plazmdu klasifikcija Transmisibilitte Transmisiblas [ tra gni, operons] Mobilizjamas [ mob saits] Nemobilizjamas

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Guided Content Optimization for Gears of War 3

    Guided Content Optimization for Gears of War 3

    Works like magic with a solid marker setup. We mark each drawcall with: Material name. Mesh / Skelmesh name. Actor name. Hierarchy of rendering. Prepass, Shadows, Opaque, Transparent, etc… Enabling shader PDBs. PIX is fantastic for tracing rendering issues and...
  • Writing a Multi-paragraph Essay

    Writing a Multi-paragraph Essay

    Writing a Multi-paragraph Essay. This is how a multi-paragraph essay should look. 1st Body Paragraph. 2nd Body Paragraph. 3rd Body Paragraph. Conclusion . Paragraph. Introduction Paragraph. Introduction Paragraph. Your intro should start general and then get more specific.
  • ATOMS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE chapter three

    ATOMS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE chapter three

    Chapter 3 Studying for the Test Vocabulary Parts of an atom History Element families Using the periodic table Metal vs. nonmetal ATOMS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE chapter three FOCUS ACTIVITY 1 ATOMIC THEORY - history ATOMIC THEORY - STRUCTURE MODEL...
  • A Brief History of English Poetry - Freshman Literature and ...

    A Brief History of English Poetry - Freshman Literature and ...

    Modern Poetry. In modernism, we see poets breaking the rules of gentlemanly Elizabethan poetry, and forming new definitions of what makes a poem interesting. No longer did poetry have to follow rules about rhythm, rhyme, and meter. Poetry from this...
  • Problem Management Process Training

    Problem Management Process Training

    Problem Management Process Training. Before you begin:This course was prepared for all IT professionals with the goal of promoting awareness of the process.Those taking this course will have varied knowledge of ITIL, Service Operation and Problem Management.
  • W5 of Computer Engineering (Why, What, When, Where, How)

    W5 of Computer Engineering (Why, What, When, Where, How)

    Binder/ Bitumen/Asphalt. Bituminous Paving mixes ( Bituminous mix) Cement and Cement concrete - their engineering and physical properties, basic tests….learnt in semester 4.. Will not discuss. Highway Engineering-Bitumen-Lecture 4 . Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology
  • CBP GIT Implementation Workgroup Structure 8-15-13 Goal Implementation

    CBP GIT Implementation Workgroup Structure 8-15-13 Goal Implementation

    Scientific, Technical Assessment, and Reporting. Partnering, Leadership & Management. Maintain. Healthy. Watersheds. Protect & Restore Water . Quality. Sustainable
  • Chapter 11

    Chapter 11

    Continuum from foragers (none) to agriculturalists (typically strong) Matrifocal Societies A survey of matrifocal (often with no resident husband-father) societies indicates that male travel & external warfare combined with a prominent female economic role reduced gender stratification.