The Spectrum of Styles From Command to Discovery

The Spectrum of Styles From Command to Discovery

The Spectrum of Styles From Command to Discovery The Spectrum of Styles By establishing who makes which decisions, about what, when, and where a skill is to be performed, it is possible to structure eleven landmark styles

Mosston/Ashworth, 1986 Why Use Different Styles? We use different styles in order to better facilitate student learning. Each style has a different strength and is used for a different

purpose. Two Types of Styles Reproductiv e Productive What Are The Reproductive Styles?

Command (A) Practice (B) Reciprocal (C) Self Check (D)

Inclusion (E) What Are The Productive Styles?

Guided Discovery Convergent Discovery Divergent Production Learner Design Learner-Initiated Self-Teaching (F)

(G) (H) (I) (J) (K) Highlights of the Spectrum Provides a structured framework for possible teaching behaviors/decisions/ practices

The PREMISE of the Spectrum is that all teaching is based on decision making. Either the teacher or the student is making the decision(s). Spectrum gradually provides opportunities for more student decision making. More Highlights of the Spectrum

The Spectrum is divided into two CLUSTERS. Styles A E are the REPRODUCTION styles and F I, the PRODUCTION styles. The first cluster uses more lower-order thinking and the second cluster more high-order thinking. More responsibility is given to students in the second cluster of teaching styles.

Style A - Command Objectives of Style A

Immediate Performance Accuracy & Precision Use of Time Immediate Results Cover More Material Master Subject Matter Exact Replication What are Some Activities

Best Suited To This Style? All Fundamental & Specialized Sport Skills Dance (Square/Folk etc.) Martial Arts Aerobics Calisthenics Archery StyleB Practice

Style B Objectives: Practice and Approximate the tasks as demonstrated /explained. Proficiency depends on amount of practice. Knowledge is obtained through various forms of feedback provided by the teacher (Most often knowledge of

results) Reciprocal Style Style C Interaction Patterns All feedback comes from the observer. Teacher only

interacts with the observer. Doer is only addressed by the observer. T O

D Self Check Style Style D Purpose = self assessment Allows learners to become more self dependent in regards to task mastery.

INCLUSION STYLE Style E or The Slanted Rope Theory Style Style Objectives Objectives

Inclusion of all learners. Accommodation of individual differences Opportunity to enter at ones own ability Determine relationship between aspirations and performance. Student evaluation & modification of

skill performance. Guided Discovery Style F What Does Guided Discovery Do? Uses a series of questions to reach an objective

Discovers the interconnection of steps within a task "DISCOVERS" a target Convergent Production Style G Purposes of Style G To allow students to

discover multiple solutions to a problem and then . . . Decide the one right answer. Only 1 answer is correct. Students can work individually or as a group Divergent Production Style H

Purposes of Style H To allow students to discover multiple solutions to a problem. All solutions are correct. Must extend the production phase Students can work individually or as a group

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