Plant Biology Fall 2006 BISC 367 - Plant Physiology Lab Spring 2009 1.0 Plant Physiology Lab Spring 2009 Professor: Dr. Aine Plant, office B8228 e-mail: [email protected] (preferred) Tel: 778-782-4461 Lab Instructor: Doug Wilson, office B9239
e-mail: [email protected] TA: Owen Wally e-mail: [email protected] Lectures: Tuesday at 11:30 - 12:20 AQ 4120 Lab & tutorial: Thursday 1:30 - 5:20 in B8241 Thursday 11:30 to 12:20 in B8241 (not in AQ5049)
1.1 Mark distribution: each 2 quizzes 2 lab reports 10 % each 17.5 % Lab report based on project 25 % Lab worksheets 20%
Quiz 1: Quiz 2: Tuesday Feb. 10 Project report due: First week of exams Textbook: Taiz and Zeiger Plant Physiology 4th edition On reserve in the library Tuesday Mar. 24
1.1 Online material: http://www.sfu.ca/bisc/bisc367/ Course outline Lab handouts Posted lecture presentations Lab project data and info. 1.1 Plant Physiology Lab
Spring 2009 Notices: General reading: Chapter one focus on: Tissues Chloroplasts Plasmodesmata Chapter 15 covers cell walls. Cover the basics only! Overview - plant morphology Shoot system Stem Supports and places leaves Transports H2O and nutrients
Leaves Photosynthesizers Reproductive structures Root system Anchors plant Absorbs water and minerals Storage (CHO) & synthesis of some hormones Overview - plant morphology 3 major tissue systems make up the plant body Ground tissue cortex
mesophyll pith Vascular tissue Dermal tissue Tissue systems are continuous throughout the plant 3 Tissue Systems Ground tissue includes: Parenchyma tissue Collenchyma tissue Sclerenchyma tissue Vascular tissue includes Xylem tissue Phloem tissue
Dermal tissue Epidermis Tissue Systems Parenchyma tissue: SIMPLE Made up of a single cell type Cells are ALIVE at maturity Capable of dividing TOTIPOTENT Involved in wound regeneration and range of metabolic fxns Tissue Systems
Chollenchyma tissue: SIMPLE Cells are ALIVE at maturity Contain unevenly thickened walls Support young growing stems and organs Tissue Systems Sclerenchyma tissue:
SIMPLE Cells are dead at maturity Typically lack protoplasts Possess secondary walls with lignin Strong polymer Support stems and organs that have stopped growing fibres sclereid
Economically important tissue! e.g. Hemp fibres Tissue Systems Xylem tissue: COMPLEX Made up from more than one cell type Functions Conduction of H2O Structural support Cells are elongated & dead at maturity Lack protoplasts
Possess elaborately thickened secondary walls with lignin (very strong) 2 main cell types Vessel members Tracheids Tissue Systems Tracheids (primitive): Tracheids stack longitudinally in the stem overlapping at tapered ends Tracheid 1 Pits
Tracheid 2 How does H2O pass from one tracheid to the next? Passes through aligned pits of neighbouring tracheids Pit membrane consists of 1o wall only Tissue Systems Vessel members (advanced): Stack end to end to form a vessel (long) Perforation plate at ea. end of a member permits easy water flow 3 vessel members stacked end to
end to form part of a vessel Slotted perforation plate forms end wall of a vessel member Water passes from vessel to vessel via pits Tissue Systems Xylem is a complex tissue: Also present Parenchyma tissue (nutrient storage) Fibres/sclereids
Tissue Systems Phloem tissue Complex Functions Conduction of nutrients Cells are alive at maturity but highly modified Lack: Nucleus Definition between cytoplasm and vacuole 2 main cell types Sieve cells Sieve tube members Tissue Systems
Sieve tube members (advanced) Elongated cells Sieve tube members stack end to end to form a sieve tube End walls form sieve plates and contain pores that connect the the cytoplasm of two sieve cells for solute transfer Sieve tube member 1 Sieve plate Sieve tube member 2 Tissue Systems Sieve tube members and sieve cells are connected to specialized cells
A sieve tube member is always associated with a companion cell Connected via plasmodesmata companion cell provides: metabolic functions Loads sugars for transport Tissue Systems Dermal tissue Functions Mechanical protection Made up of epidermal (parenchymal) cells Cells overlaid with a waxy cuticle to minimize H2O loss
Waxy cuticle Tissue Systems Dermal tissue Also present Guard cells Regulate size of the stomatal pore and Movement CO2 into leaf Movement H2O vapour out Stomatal pore Tissue Systems Dermal tissue Also present
Trichomes aka hairs Increase reflectance of solar radiation Absorb H2O and minerals (epiphytes) Contain chemical defenses Can impale larvae of some insects Branched & glandular trichomes Root anatomy Root structure
Simple Epidermis (outer layer of cells) Protects root Plays important role in water uptake Facilitated by root hairs Tubular extension from epidermal cell Increases surface area for water uptake Produced in zone of maturation Short lived Root epidermal cell with root hair Root anatomy Cortex Ground tissue that occupies most volume of root
Cells often adapted for storage Starch Numerous air spaces exist Roots need to respire! Innermost boundary of cortex is the endodermis Root anatomy Vasculature in a eudicot root Protostele
Vascular tissue occupies the centre of root Xylem arranged as a star Phloem tissue is located between the arms of the xylem star Pericycle tissue surrounds vascular tissue Root anatomy Vasculature in some monocot roots develops with a central pith Central pith Maize root Stem anatomy
Primary structure of a eudicot stem 1o vascular tissue are present as a cylinder of strands separated by ground tissue Interfascicular rays or pith rays 1o phloem is present at the outside of the bundle 1o xylem is present on the inside of the bundle Ground tissue in centre of stem is the pith Ground tissue that lies outside the vascular bundle is the cortex Outermost layer is the epidermis
Contains stomata and trichomes Stem anatomy Primary structure of a eudicot stem Single layer of cells between 1o phloem & 1o xylem remain meristematic Become vascular cambium Cylindrical meristem that is responsible for 2o growth Remainder of cambium arises from interfascicular parenchyma Note, not all eudicots undergo 2o
growth No cambium arises Anatomy of a woody stem Woody stem during first year of growth Leaves Evolved to photosynthesize Divided into Blade or lamina Petiole or stalk Leaf anatomy is influenced by the amount of available water: Plants can be grouped according to their water requirements: mesophyte Plant with plentiful water supply
hydrophyte Grows partially or completely submerged xerophyte Adapated to dry environment Leaf anatomy General features of mesophytic leaves (eudicot) Stomata more numerous on lower surface sheltered Photosynthetic tissue (mesophyll) is differentiated into: Upper palisade parenchyma
Upright cells with many cps Lower spongy mesophyll Permeated by air spaces Vasculature is netted venation Xylem towards upper surface Phloem towards lower surface Small veins collect P/S products Surrounded by a bundle sheath Controls entry/exit of material Large veins transport P/S products from leaf Leaf anatomy Anatomical modifications in hydrophytes Problem = obtaining enough CO2 & O2
Stomates not present or in upper epidermis (floating leaf) Thin cuticle Large amounts of air in spongy mesophyll Gas exchange buoyancy Reduced vascular tissue Partic. xylem Reduced amount of support tissue Leaf anatomy Modifications present in xerophytes Problem = getting enough water Many of these plants have reduced leaf size or no leaves
Large number of stomates Optimize gas exchange when water is plentiful? Remember stomates usually shut Stomates generally sunk in depression in leaf surface Assoc. with trichomes Both increase depth of boundary layer & slow rate of water loss Thick cuticle Multiple epidermis Modified to store water More supporting tissue to compensate for reduced turgor Stomate
Leaf anatomy General features of monocot leaves Parallel venation system Lack a defined palisade/spongy mesophyll layers Leaves tend to be vertically oriented Anatomy modified according to mode of P/S C4 photosynthesis Carbon fixed to form a C4 acid in mesophyll cell C4 acid is transported to bundle sheath cell & decarboxylated Released CO2 is refixed by C3 P/S
P/S CO2 + C3 acid CO2 + C3 acid C4 acid C4 acid Mesophyll cell Bundle sheath cell Leaf anatomy Leaves of C4 plants display Kranz anatomy
Mesophyll and BSC form 2 concentric layers around a vascular bundle Bundle sheaths are close together C4 leaf Leaves of C3 plants have well separated bundle sheaths and do not have Kranz anatomy C3 leaf
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