NEW COVER SLIDE- qinfo with p & a - U of T Physics
Ultracold atoms and Bose-Einstein condensation Aephraim Steinberg (and the web!)
How scientists brag... (Does this mean much? If so, what? And who picked the key words?) Play your own games at the Web of Science or INSPEC (http://isi6.isiknowledge.com/portal.cgi/WOS et al via www.library.utoronto.ca/resources/)
HISTORY Prehistory: 1930s: 1976: 1980s: Parallel:
1988: 1995: 1996: 1997: 2001: now:
Fermions vs Bosons (Bose & Einstein, 1924-5) periodic table versus laser particle versus wave? London superfluidity due to BEC? superconductivity too?
Stwalley/Noganow: spin-polarized H? Silvera/Walraven, Hess, Kleppner, Evaporative cooling Development of laser cooling Anomalously low temperatures! The race is on
BEC in Rb, Na, almost Li (a<0!) Nobel prize -- for Helium 3! Nobel prize -- for laser cooling! Nobel prize -- for BEC, at long last. the interesting stuff!
See: http://www.nobel.se (Nobel homepage) and http://physicsweb.org/articles/world/10/3/3 and http://www.colorado.edu/physics/2000/bec/ and http://cua.mit.edu/ketterle_group/ and so on... Phase diagram of just about anything
"If it were really impossible, why would they bother to forbid it?" (Eric Cornell paraphrasing Joseph Heller) HOW COLD MUST YOU GET?
Need 1 atom per cubic wavelength wavelength = 1 / momentum water would need to be near 3 degrees K, but solidifies first (cf He!) Alkalis solidify too; need densities millions of times lower than air: need temperatures less than 1 uK! In particular: get atoms within 1 optical wavelength of
each other, and keep their momentum < photon's. Laser cooling alone can't do it (understood by mid 90s); steal "evaporative cooling" idea from Hydrogen crowd. RF cooling, a la Ketterle (MIT)
Number of atoms in ground state, vs temperature: A quantum phase transition. The third group to get there?
What would you do? Close to 100 BEC's by 2005. Thirty-five new reports of laboratory observations of BEC in atomic gases have come in since May, 1997: July 11, 2002: Hold the phone!
July 3, 2002: First in China June 28, 2002: Home of the whopper April 8, 2002: Formula One in Oxford December 21, 2001: Japan 4 December 12, 2001: BEC am Bodensee! November 21, 2001: Rubidium at NIST Gaithersburg
October 31, 2001: Special K June 19, 2001: German Micro BEC at Tbingen May 18, 2001: Vive la difference! May 17, 2001: Strine debut May 11, 2001: Optical route through Georgia March 12, 2001: Grail in sight in Holy Land!
February 23, 2001: Helium work is really hopping in France! February 16, 2001: He has arrived! January 31, 2001: It's freezing in Paris-Nord July 21, 2000: Third Japanese condensate November 21, 1999: A Pisa the action July, 1999: Dutch Treat
June 23, 1999: New Rubidium Gelato Taste Treat March 29, 1999: The Game's Afoot in Oxford December 30, 1998: Now Kyoto December 16, 1998: Sweet Sixteen in the Land of the Rising Sun September 22, 1998: Cool Brittania August 25, 1998: A First in the Southern Hemisphere
August 5, 1998: Lucky Number in Hannover July 8, 1998: BEC in 87Rb - a new Aspect June 24, 1998: H at Last ! May 11, 1998: Report from cole Normale Suprieure February 26, 1998: BEC at NIST Gaithersburg January 23, 1998: Bavarian Breakthrough !
September 30, 1997: Now playing in Europe July 10, 1997: Stanford group weighs in July 2, 1997: BEC observed at the Rowland Institute May 20, 1997: BEC observed at the University of Texas 2 in 1995
0 in 1996 4 in 1997 10 in 1998 ...12 in 2001 ..... (How many do we need?)
Competing to build the "atom laser" Interference with Atoms! Games with vortices in BEC
QuickTime and aGIF decompressorare needed to see this picture. Nonlinear atom optics Best gravimeters/accelerometers?
Quantum computers (can get well-controlled atoms to interact with each other)? Model system to understand solid-state problems (high-Tc superconductivity etc)?
The next-generation atomic clock (Actually, this generation!)
QuickTime and aTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressorare needed to see this picture. QuickTime and aTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressorare needed to see this
Milled roadbed shot at 10-foot intervals with Leica Total Stations. Not surprisingly, old PCC did not consistently exhibit original plan sheet cross-slope of 1.56% (3/16" per foot). Applying 2.00% cross-slope, minimum 300-foot curve length and design thickness would have yielded...
Finish this sentence: "We hold these truths to be self-evident" that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.
En un plato real no llega a alcanzarse el equilibrio entre el líquido y el vapor que salen de él. En consecuencia, la concentración del vapor es menor que la del equilibrio. El cálculo de platos reales puede hacerse introduciendo...
Integers: Comparing and Ordering EQ How do we compare and order rational numbers? Rational Numbers Rational Numbers Integers Fractions/Decimals Whole Numbers (Positive Integers) Negative Integers Rational numbers Numbers that can be written as a fraction.
In November 2018 the new dissemination portal will be available. R4BP 3 will become "transparent" and any information foreseen to be disseminated and not identified as confidential will be available. ... Support the eCAs. The survey and follow-up (3/3)
Grading will be 30% Reading Assessment, 30% Writing Assessment, 30% on Focus Standards (this could be homework, classwork, presentation, projects, etc.) and 10% on Word Within a Word (vocabulary and stems) and Magic Lens: Parts of Grammar/Sentence (Honors only) Classwork/Homework...