.net

.net

Lecture 1: .NET What Is It And Why Use It? 01/17/2020 .NET - What and Why 1 Software from Components In the industrial revolution, engineers learned to build things in a consistent, predictable, repeatable way Design once, build many identical parts They learned to use assembly lines to assemble multiple items from sets of identical components

Any component of a given type and specification is interchangeable with another of the same type 01/17/2020 .NET - What and Why 2 Why not build software the same way? Multiple languages and incompatibilities Basic, C, C++, COBOL, Visual Basic, C#, F#, Java, Fortran, Perl, Python, Eiffel, Delphi, SQL, Pascal, PL/ I, APL, assembly, Scheme, Smalltalk, Prolog, Lisp, RPG, Ada, Snobol, Forth, Algol, Modula-2, HTML, Haskell, JavaScript, Objective C, ABAP, Cannot just take a block of source code from a Lisp

program, for example, and plug it into a COBOL source program and expect it to compile and work Usually, cannot easily call an Ada method from a Python program, for example 01/17/2020 .NET - What and Why 3 Why not build software the same way? Different Data Types Many different data types Not implemented the same way in all languages Implementations vary in size Character type may take 1 byte (ASCII or

EBCDIC) or 2 or more bytes for Unicode Integers may occupy 8 bits, 16 bits, 32 bits, 64 bits, 128 bits, . . . 01/17/2020 .NET - What and Why 4 Why not build software the same way? Different conventions Argument passing may be left-to-right or rightto-left Arguments in one language may be passed using a stack; others use registers, pointers, or some other means; not consistent among languages

Name collisions Same term may be used differently in different languages a class name in one language may be a keyword in another 01/17/2020 .NET - What and Why 5 Why not build software the same way? Different platforms and architectures Addresses and data: 16-bit, 32-bit, 64-bit, Big-endian (ABCD) vs. little-endian (DCBA) Different instruction sets Differences in register architecture

01/17/2020 .NET - What and Why 6 Why not build software the same way? Different operating systems even on the same hardware Almost all user software depends on and uses services provided by the OS and its subsystems Different Operating Systems have different ways of implementing the services, different APIs, different conventions, different security approaches, different levels of support for various activities

01/17/2020 .NET - What and Why 7 Why not build software the same way? Different Human Languages; Different Cultures English, French, Japanese, Chinese, German, Spanish, Arabic, Russian, Hebrew, In the US, 1.23 represents 1 and 23 hundredths, while in many European cultures, the same value would be represented as 1,23 Fahrenheit vs. Celsius; in US, 32 degrees is cold while in Canada, 32 degrees is hot (32 C 89.6 F) US Dollars vs. Canadian Dollars, Euros, Pounds Sterling, Yen, Rubles, Riyals, Dirhams, Pesos, Yuan, ... Dates: 03/04/2018 is March 4, 2018 in the US, but it is April 3,

2018 in much of Europe Inches, miles, gallons, pounds vs. centimeters, kilometers, liters, and kilograms . . . 01/17/2020 .NET - What and Why 8 COM, CORBA, Enterprise Java Beans Various companies and groups of companies came up with approaches that could be used to standardize things and allow components to work together Problems: All approaches were proprietary Approaches incompatible with each other

Not based on open standards 01/17/2020 .NET - What and Why 9 .NET Based on a standard developed by Microsoft, Intel, IBM, and others Approved as a standard by ECMA (European Computer Manufacturers Association an international standards body for information and communications systems) Approved as a standard by ISO (International Standards Organization)

Standards cover CTS, CLS, C#, and other items Designed to be language agnostic Platform neutral Open to development by anyone 01/17/2020 .NET - What and Why 10 Many others including IronPython, IronRuby, Cobol, Delphi, JavaScript, etc. The virtual machine

runs this 01/17/2020 .NET - What and Why 11 Thus, Solutions/Applications can be developed in any .NET language or languages (by project) that fully supports the features used by the application and that adheres to the standards Different parts of the application (solution) can be developed in different languages A VB main program can use a class developed in C# that uses another class developed in F#, for example

In a .NET web application, each web page at a web site could be developed in a separate .NET language 01/17/2020 .NET - What and Why 22

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