Nationalism and Unification - Mr. Martin's History site
Nationalism and Unification Beginnings of modern Europe Nationalism The rise of nationalism was a powerful force behind European politics during the nineteenth century. Widespread demands for political rights led to revolutions and legislative actions in Europe. How did nationalism and democracy influence
national revolutions? Nationalism and Democratic influence National pride, economic competition, and democratic ideals stimulated the growth of nationalism. The terms of the Congress of Vienna led to widespread discontent in Europe, especially in Italy and the German states. Unsuccessful
revolutions of 1848 increased nationalistic tensions. Nationalism: A Force for Unity or Disunity Two Views of Nationalism Nationalists use their common bonds to build nation-states Rulers eventually use nationalism to unify their subjects
Three different types of nationalist movements: unification merges culturally similar lands separation splits off culturally distinct groups state-building binds separate cultures into one Nationalism and Democratic influence In contrast to continental Europe, the United Kingdom expanded political rights through legislative means and made slavery illegal in
the British Empire. Case Study: Italy Cavour Leads Italian Unification(Northern Italy) Camillo di Cavour prime minister of the Kingdom of Sardinia in
1852 Gets French help to win control of Austriancontrolled Italian land Case Study: Italy Garibaldi Brings Unity Giuseppe Garibaldileads nationalists who conquer southern Italy
Cavour convinces Garibaldi to unite southern Italy with Sardinia Garibaldi steps aside, allowing the king of Sardinia to rule Control of Venetia and Papal States finally unites Italy Unification of Italy
What events led to the unification of Italy? Count Cavour unified northern Italy. Giuseppe Garibaldi joined southern Italy to northern Italy. The Papal States (including Rome) became the last to join Italy. Italian Unification 1850-1870
Count Cavour Case Study: Germany Bismarck Unites Germany Beginning in 1815, thirty-nine German states form the German Confederation Prussia Leads German Unification Prussia has advantages that help it to unify
Germany mainly German population powerful army creation of liberal constitution Case Study: Germany Bismarck Takes Control Junkersconservative wealthy landownerssupport Prussian
Wilhelm I Junker realpolitik master Otto von Bismarck becomes prime minister Realpolitikpower politics without room for idealism Bismarck defies Prussian parliament
Unification of Germany What role did Otto von Bismarck play in the unification of Germany? Otto van Bismarck led Prussia in the unification of Germany through war and by appealing to nationalist feelings. Bismarcks actions were seen as an example of Realpolitik, which justifies all means to achieve and hold power. The Franco-Prussian War led to the creation of the
German state. Case Study: Germany The Franco-Prussian War Bismarck provokes war with France to unite all Germans Wilhelm is crowned Kaiseremperor of a united Germanyat Versailles Bismarck creates a Germany united under
Prussian dominance. Realpolitik: means. Do whatever it takes to git er done! You must have read my book!
A Shift in Power Balance Is Lost In 1815 the Congress of Vienna established five powers in Europe:
Austria Prussia Britain France Russia By 1871, Britain and Prussia (now Germany) have gained much power
Austria and Russia are weaker militarily and economically Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution began in England and spread to the rest of Western Europe and the United States. With the Industrial Revolution came an increased demand for raw materials from the Americas, Asia, and Africa.
Advancements in technology produced the Industrial Revolution, while advancements in science and medicine altered the lives of people living in the new industrial cities. Cultural changes soon followed. Various advances that assist trade
All weather roads (improve transportation) Improved farm tools (iron plows) Improved farming techniques (crop rotation) Increased food production = increase in population Improved ship design improves sea transportation and lowers cost of trade
Industrial Revolution (1750-1850) CONDITIONS in England favor Industrial growth Natural resources (coal, iron) Human resources Favorable economic conditions (available capital, stable economy) Favorable political conditions
Favorable social/cultural conditions New technology and inventive minds Industrial Revolution Originated in England because of its natural resources (e.g., coal, iron ore) and the invention and improvement of the steam engine. Spread to Europe and the United States.
Role of cotton textile, iron, and steel industries Relationship to the British Enclosure Movement Industrial Revolution Rise of the factory system and demise of cottage industries. Rising economic powers that wanted to control raw materials and markets throughout
the world. Technological Advancements that helped produce the Industrial Revolution Spinning jenny: James Hargreaves
Steam engine: James Watt Cotton gin: Eli Whitney Process for making steel: Henry Bessemer (Bessemer process) Advancements in science and medicine Development of smallpox vaccination: Edward Jenner Discovery of bacteria: Louis Pasteur
Industrial Revolution Only when first conditions are favorable will technology and resources lead to industrial development Q: How can a country sit on top of HUGE oil reserves and be dirt poor? Q: Why are political or social problems a barrier to economic prosperity? Industrial development: Concepts
Places that are quick to industrialize will get ahead of those that do not First places to industrialize will be the first to experience the NEGATIVE effects* of Industrialization MISERY FESTERS Benefits of industrial life will lead people to COMPROMISE to improve conditions RISE of a new middle class, change, etc.
Negative Effects of Industrialization Rapid urbanization (too fast for city infrastructure to handle) Miserable living conditions (slums) Miserable working conditions (factories) Child Labor and Women (CHEAP) *Emergence of radical ideas (utilitarianism, socialism, communism)
Imperialism, Westernization, ethnocentrism, racism, greed, and WARS.to be continued! Impacts of the Industrial Revolution on industrialized countries
Population increase Increased standards of living for many but not all Improved transportation Urbanization
Environmental pollution Increased education Dissatisfaction of working class with working conditions Growth of the middle class Positive Effects of Industrialization Urbanization in general (can be good too) Population Increase (fewer people die as
medicine gets better) Standard of living increases (for many) Improved transportation Improved education (access and equity) Rise of the Middle Class and .PROGRESS as a result of compromises between business owners and workers Capitalism and market competition fueled the
Industrial Revolution. Wealth increased the standard of living for some. Social dislocations associated with capitalism produced a range of economic and political ideas, including socialism and communism What was the role of capitalism and market competition in the Industrial Revolution? What were some theories opposed to capitalism?
Capitalism Adam Smiths The Wealth of Nations Role of market competition and entrepreneurial abilities Impact on standard of living and the growth of the middle class Dissatisfaction with poor working conditions and the unequal distribution of wealth in
society Socialism and communism Karl Marxs The Communist Manifesto (written with Friedrich Engels) and Das Kapital Response to the injustices of capitalism Importance to communists of redistribution of wealth
Agricultural economies were based on the family unit. The Industrial Revolution had a significant impact on the structure and function of the family. The Industrial Revolution placed new demands on the labor of men, women, and children. Workers organized labor unions to fight for improved working conditions and workers rights.
How did the Industrial Revolution impact the lives of women, children, and the family? How did the Industrial Revolution affect slavery? Why did workers organize into labor unions? The nature of work in the factory system Family-based cottage industries displaced by the factory system Harsh working conditions with men competing
with women and children for wages Child labor that kept costs of production low and profits high Owners of mines and factories who exercised considerable control over the lives of their laborers. Impact of the Industrial Revolution on slavery The cotton gin increased demand for slave
labor on American plantations. The United States and Britain outlawed the slave trade and then slavery. Social effects of the Industrial Revolution Women and children entering the workplace as cheap labor Introduction of reforms to end child labor Expansion of education
Womens increased demands for suffrage The rise of labor unions Encouraged worker-organized strikes to demand increased wages and improved working conditions Lobbied for laws to improve the lives of workers, including women and children Wanted workers rights and collective
bargaining between labor and management Effects of the Industrial Revolution during the nineteenth century Industrial nations in Europe needed natural resources and markets to expand their economies. These nations competed to control Africa and Asia in order to secure their own economic and
political success. Imperialism spread the economic, political and social philosophies of Europe throughout the world. Effects Cont. Resistance to imperialism took many forms, including armed conflict and intellectual movements.
Why did European countries participate in imperialism and a race for colonies? What were some responses of colonized peoples to European imperialism? Effects of Industrial Revolution Nationalism motivated European nations to compete for colonial possessions. European economic, military, and political power forced
colonized countries to trade on European terms. Industrially produced goods flooded colonial markets and displaced their traditional industries. Colonized peoples resisted European domination and responded in diverse ways to Western influences. Forms of Imperialism Colonies Americas, India, Africa
Protectorates Spheres of influence - China Imperialism in Africa and Asia
European domination European conflicts carried to the colonies Christian missionary efforts Spheres of influence in China Suez Canal East India Companys domination of Indian states Americas opening of Japan to trade
Responses of colonized peoples Armed conflicts (e.g., events leading to the Boxer Rebellion in China) Rise of nationalism (e.g., first Indian nationalist party founded in the mid-1800s)
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