Napoleon

Napoleon

Final Review 60 Points: 70 Multiple Choice (.75 points each) 10 Map Identifications (.75 points each) 40 Points: 15 DBQ Questions (1 point each) DBQ Essay (25 points) Napoleon 1799-1815 Napoleon

Born in Corsica (1769) Made a name for himself through military ability Became a war hero Why was he so appealing to the French in 1799? Symbol of strength, leadership From Directory to First Consul Assists in coup detat (1799)

Establishes himself as First Consul Soon proclaims himself Consul for Life 1804 Emperor of the French At this point he becomes very active militarily throughout Europe Napoleonic Era - Domestic Concordat of 1801 Peace with the Pope; Catholics practice

freely but Napoleon in control of church appointments Peasants satisfied Police State Joseph Fouche Use of propaganda and censorship Napoleonic Era - Domestic Civil Code of 1804 (Napoleonic Code) Written code of law; women lose power Reasserts moderate principles of the Revolution:

1) equality of all male citizens before the law 2) absolute security of wealth and private property Bank of France Confirmed the gains of the peasantry and reassured the middle class while still serving the financial oligarchy The Lycee Education for future leaders Napoleons Foreign Policy 1800-1807 Napoleon vs. Austria, Britain, Prussia & Russia

Gains Austrias Italian possessions & German territory on the Rhine Assumed the Italian crown Gains some Prussian territory (Treaty of Tilsit) Abolished the Holy Roman Empire and created the Confederation of the Rhine EMPEROR OF EUROPE Continental System Britain serves as an obstacle to Napoleons goals of Grand Empire Attempts to restrict trade through a blockade

Forces conquered territories and satellites to follow suit Major Failure Grand Empire Part I: expanded France; By 1810 included Belgium, Holland, parts of Northern Italy, and much German territory on the east bank of the Rhine Part II: dependent satellite kingdoms on the thrones of which he placed the members of his large family Part III: Independent but allied states of Austria, Prussia, and Russia

Rebellion He brought revolutionary ideas with him as he conquered NATIONALISM Spain revolts in 1808 Alexander I refuses to honor Continental System Napoleon goes into Russia 1812 beginning of the end Underestimated the length of time it would take and the severity of the Russian winter Scorched-earth policy of Alexander I

Goya: The Shootings of May Third 1808 Napoleons Downfall Coalition defeats Napoleon Attempts a comeback Hundred Days Final Defeat Waterloo Metternich Restores Stability The Congress of Vienna

Balance of power, containment, legitimacy AGE OF CONSERVATIVISM; Liberalism and Nationalism are alive and well though! Congress of Vienna Ten month meeting of almost all European leaders (except the Ottoman Empire) Castlereagh (Britian) Hardenburg (Prussia) Alexander I (Russia) Talleyrand (France) Metternich (Austria) Dominates negotiations

Wartime unity (the Coalition) dissolves Congress of Vienna Issues: Status of France Political boundaries, lost territories Displaced monarchs Traditional approach taken Ignored democratic, liberal, nationalist ideals Conservative political groups gain most control

Congress of Vienna 4 main principles followed by Congress: 1. Legitimacy old royal families power is restored 2. Encirclement of France creates strong neighboring states 3. Compensation land exchanges to balance gains, losses 4. Balance of power prevent any one country from becoming too powerful Congress of Vienna Effects:

Holy Roman Empire officially dissolved German Confederation dominated by Austria Bourbon monarch restored in France (Louis XVIII) 40 years of general peace followed No major war in Europe until 1914 Congress of Vienna suppresses Spanish and Italian revolts in 1820s restores monarchies Congress System weakens over time

Britain largely isolates itself By 1825, Congress little more than Austrian-Russian alliance France The Bourbon Monarch returns Louis XVIII is new king (1815-1824) Weak, inefficient Tried to please both political extremes (unsuccessful) Charles X (1824-1830) VERY conservative and oppressive 1830 Rebellions begin, Charles flees

Louis Philippe (1830-1848) Not really a Citizen King Favored the wealthy Endured many protests Revolution Spreads Germany (1819) Austria (Metternich) dominates German Confederation Nationalism movements students protest 1819 Carlsbad Decrees limit press, organizing, academic freedom Belgium (1830) Congress of Vienna placed Belgium under Dutch rule

Belgians riot for independence, Belgium established in 1839 Leopold I new king Poland (1830) Congress of Vienna place under Russian rule with some selfgoverning powers: Congress Polan Unsuccessfully rebel for independence Italy (1830) Divided by Congress of Vienna (Bourbon, papal, Austrian rule) Revolutions in 1820-21 suppressed Mazzini leads revolution in 1830 founds Young Italy (political group pushing for unification) 1848: Revolutionary Year

New round of revolutions in Europe (Political and social pressures across Europe at an alltime high) Frances 2 Republic nd Feb 1848 Paris erupts in violence Provisional government set up Universal manhood suffrage proclaimed Louis Philippe flees Second Republic (1848-1851) Govt soon splits to moderates v. radicals

Moderates want existing social order Radicals want social and economic revolution Radicals create national workshop program set up to guarantee employment for all fails June Days workers rebel, soon crushed 1851 - France returns to Empire Germany French riots influence German Confederation Rebellion breaks out Prussian King Frederick William IV promises constitutional government and civil rights

Frankfort Assembly (1848) Meeting of German states, Austria, Bohemia Issues: Unify Germany? Who leads Germany? Creates Declaration of the rights of the German people Constitution approved King William refuses the crown, movement dissolves Italy Inspired by French and German revolts Rebellion breaks out in Northern Italy King Charles Albert promises new

constitution Influences other Italian states Austria retakes Northern Italy Papacy Pope Pius IX had begun reforms Pius refuses to help fight off Austria Counter to unification Forced to flee Mazzini takes over and declares a Roman Republic France sends in an army to defeat

Mazzini Pius returns The Habsburgs Reformers in Habsburg lands influenced by revolutions (Hungary especially) Lajos Kossuth (nationalistic liberal politician) Demands parliamentary government Students join Kossuths cause rebellion starts Metternich forced to resign

New Hungarian constitution Political division weakens movement Austrians crush Hungarian independence movement Kossuth flees After 1848 Two responses to the failed revolutions of 1848: Realpolitik

Machiavellian notion The ends justify the means Do whatever necessary to strengthen your nation Germany, Italy, France Reform Efforts to change political structure and governments to fit the changing times and movements Britain, Russia, Austria-Hungary Out Loud Cool Down Do you think that if a revolution fails, it is a complete failure? What can be gained

from a failed revolution? What can be lost? Discuss with a partner and be prepared to share in a class discussion. Warm Up Nationalism A belief that ones greatest loyalty should not be to a king or an empire but to a nation of people who share a common culture and history. Nation-State: When that nation also has its own independent government Is nationalism a major force in our world? Where? How is it a force of unification & division?

Latin American Society Social Division based on place of birth: Peninsulares: men who had been born in Spain Role: Could hold high offices in government Creoles: Spaniards born in Latin America Role: could not hold high office but could be army officers Mestizos: persons of mixed European and Indian ancestry Mulattos: persons of mixed European and African ancestry Indians: provided little economic value to the Spaniards

WHO IS MOST LIKELY TO LEAD INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENTS? Napoleon Invasion of Spain 1808 Napoleon put his brother on the throne Creoles might support a Spanish king but NOT a French one Creole rebellion begins to break out in Spanish colonies in 1810 Napoleon is gone in 1814 Powerful armies can be defeated!!!

Creoles Charge Forward!! Libertadores: Bolivar & San Martin Simon Bolivar Wealthy Venezuelan creole Won independence for Venezuela in 1821 Took over command of Martins forces and won independence for Peru Jose de San Martin Born in Argentina Won independence for Chile

and Argentina Helped by Bernardo OHiggins Mexico Unusual Leadership Padre Miguel Hidalgo Grito de Dolores Spanish army and creoles defeated him in 1811 Padre Jose Morelos Led revolution for four years but defeated in 1815 by a creole officer

Augustin de Iturbide A creole officer who finally declared Mexican independence from Spain in 1821 Brazil Freedom from Portugal 1807-1815 years of independence 1815 monarch restored in Portugal wanted Brazil as a colony again 1822 Peaceful Independence Brazilians called for the son of

the Portuguese king to rule Bloodless Revolution Haiti- Freedom from the French Toussaint LOuverture An ex-slave - Slaves realized there was power in numbers Freed the slaves in 1802 Sent to prison and died April 1803 Independence continued and completed by Jean-Jacques Dessalines in 1804

Impact of Independence Wars disrupted trade Devastated cities and countryside Dream of a united Latin America fell apart Split into several republics: Columbia, Ecuador, Venezuela, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras Political Ideologies

Conservatism: Who? Wealthy property owners and nobility What? status quo, restore legitimate monarchies, God & History, government run institutions to keep control, emphasis on community, government controlled economy Example: Metternich Liberalism Who? Middle-Class business leaders & merchants

What? Freedom of speech, freedom of the press, representative government, emphasis on the individual, laissez-faire economics Do this mean that if you were a liberal you supported democracy? Radicals Most liberals didnt really want to change things all that much. Example: Voting restrictions, only the educated could lead Radicals favored democracy Liberalism and radical democratic ideas will

merge in the late 1800s What is going on in Europe that is changing the social structure throughout the 1800s? Nationalism Nationalism and liberalism often get linked together but Just because you were a nationalist didnt automatically mean you were a liberal Nationalism is liberal in that it believes in the ability for individuals to cause change Nationalism is conservative in that it emphasizes the community rather than the individual. Identify yourself as part of a group.

Extreme nationalism will lead to totalitarian states in the 20th century: Hitler, Stalin Revolutions of 1830 & 1848 Louis XVIII, Charles X, Louis Philippe Why did they come into power? How did they rule? What were the Repercussions of their ruling style? Why? Know which countries had revolutions. Know why they had revolutions. Which were successful? Which were not? Latin American Revolutions

Know the social structure of Spanish America (Peninsulares, Creoles, etc) and know each groups role in society. Know leaders of Latin American Revolutions (Who were each, where did the start rebellions, were they successful?) Know the impact of Latin American Revolutions how did they influence the future of the region? Know the definition and examples of nationalism. Reading Question #1

What influence did Napoleon have on French and European history? Napoleonic Code Concordat of 1801 Nationalism Congress of Vienna Reading Question 2

How successful were the diplomats at Vienna in negotiating a peace settlement that prevented another continental war? Monarchs put back in place Legitimate rule Put down revolts in Spain, Italy No major war for 100 years Relative peace for decades Reading Question 3

What forces led to the destruction in 1848 of the international created at the Congress of Vienna in 1815? Monarchies put back in place Goes against democratic wants of the people Monarchs favored the rich, oppressed the poor Nationalism leads to desire for unification and independence in Germany, Italy, Hungary

(Austria) Reading Question 4 What effects did the Spanish and Portuguese have on their New World colonies? Mix of cultures, food, materials, ideas, diseases Disease, war, slavery destroy native populations Encomienda Importation of African slaves new races,

social class system Reading Question 5 How did Napoleons wars in Europe influence events across the ocean in Latin America? Takes over Spain and Portugal Latin American colonies now owned by French revolutions Ideas of nationalism Industrial Revolution

1790s 1860s Goals of this Unit Why and how did the Industrial Revolution start? And why in Great Britain? Why and how did it spread to the rest of Europe? What was the industry like? What was it like for the workers in places like Manchester, England? Why did Socialism develop during this time? What were the science, technology, and cultural responses to the Industrial Revolution?

Introduction Western Europe and America dominated globe in 19th century Individuals improved tools, adopted better methods Industrialization brought greater productivity Scientists made advances, businesses discovered new opportunities Middle classes dominated, controlled industrialization, economic transformation; benefited from social, legal reforms in France, Britain, U.S. The British Phase

The Revolution in Making Cloth Changes in agriculture less people needed for farming Demand for more cloth output increased Putting out system subcontracting system Example: cotton merchant makes contract with village to produce certain amount of cotton The Revolution in Making Cloth Solving of practical problems in cloth making set pattern for all industrial revolutions Practical people solved these practical

problems Through invention (and enhancements and redesigns) Key Inventions John Kay (1733): the flying shuttle James Hargreaves (1764): spinning jenny Richard Arkwright (1769): water frame

Samuel Crompton (1779): water mule Edmund Cartwright (1785): power loom Key Inventions Eli Whitney (1793): the cotton gin Key Inventions James Watt (1775): Perfects steam engine Used to make cloth, drive ships, locomotives Effects of New Inventions More efficient inventions Increased

industrialization Transition from rural life to urban lif Britains Advantages Sufficient population, hardworking, inventive Risk-taking private sector, government support Good communications, transportation, ports, merchant fleet Flexible, merit-based social structure, stable society

Bank of England provided money, financial stability Britains Advantages Profited from need for industry during Napoleonic Wars Continental system remember? Expanded efficiency to iron, steel Bessemer process produced hard, malleable

steel in 1850s Steel prices drop production soars Britains Advantages By 1850, Britain produced: 67% of worlds coal 50% of worlds iron and cloth By 1850, half of British population lived in cities The Continental Phase Warm Up

Why do you think it took longer for the rest of Europe to catch up to England? What factors might have lead to this? The Continental Phase Industrialization and banking changes across Europe Eastern, southern Europe more limited Nobilities, political boundaries, tariff barriers block growth of industry Belgium By 1850, only one to compete with

British Why? Belgium had favorable: Government policies Stability Good transportation Other countries and businesses used spies to copy Britains secrets

By 1850, whole continent caught up New banking systems allow modern investment banks Many small investors in new banks rather than a few great families Customs union of German states (1819) Managed trade and economies between all German Confederation Eliminated tolls, tariffs Stimulated trade, commerce

Germany begins to thrive The Zollverein The Continental Phase Euro population grows during era 175 million 435 million Problems with this? Thomas Malthus (British economist)

Predicts food supply wont keep up with pace of population growth Malthus didnt account for Improved technology increases production of food Why does population grow? Decline in death rates

Better sanitation More food Earlier marriages Communication and transportation systems vastly improve Better roads New canals Bridgewater, Suez, Panama Communication and transportation systems vastly improve

Railroads linked markets, brought nations together, carried people efficiently U.S. transcontinental (1869) Russian Trans-Siberian (1903) Communication and transportation systems vastly improve Urban rail lines, trolleys, subways Clipper ships, steamships Communication and transportation systems vastly improve

Better postal systems, telegraph, telephone, typewriter The Workers of the Industrial Revolution The New Type of Labor Labor force went from Agrarian work: Work 2/3 of year, 8 hours a day Seasonal, less demanding Factory labor 14 hours a day, 6 days a week, 52 weeks a year

No holidays Intense, demanding, dangerous The Factory System Dangers of factory work: Bad lighting Poor ventilation Dangerous machines No safety standards, no health or disability insurance

until late 1800s No job security Owners vs. Workers Owners hold power, workers only have power in numbers Child Labor Children often worked the worst jobs Mills, mines, etc Smaller size benefits factory and mine owners Toughest jobs

that cant be done by adults Harder for kids to organize and protest Women Labor Women laborers work in factories More organization led to numerous strikes and workers rights movements

Protested against factory owners for: Better wages Better working conditions Better hours Etc Labor Movement Both men and women protest and strike Attack machines as protest Frustrated skilled craftsman out of work Peterloo Massacre (1819)

Combination Acts prohibited workers associations Repealed in 1825 Paved way for unions Become stronger throughout 19th century Poor Urban Conditions European cities grew massively during Industrial Revolution Rapid increase causes many

social problems Political leaders could not keep up with problems and demands Factory system dangerous, spread of diseases Bad health conditions, alcoholism, prostitution Had to provide security, sanitation services, schools, housing Problems could not be fixed for first generation of workers Haussmann implements city planning, urban renewal in Paris

Not until 1900 did most cities start to fix problems Socialism System in which the factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all Industrialization is leading to selfish individualism and is breaking down community Optimistic view of human nature, a belief in progress, concern for social justice Planned Economy competition is evil Rich & poor should be more equal Private property restricted or abolished

Capitalism increases the misery of the working classes Ex. Charles Fouray, Henri de Saint-Simon, Robert Owen Utopian Socialism Robert Owen (1771-1858) Shocked by misery and poverty of working class Factory owner who wanted to improve conditions for his workers Created a Cooperative Community:

No children under ten could work Free schooling Built houses for his workers Karl Marx and Communism Karl Marx (1818-1883) German economist, philosopher Meets Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) Engels had experience in hardships of factory life Life-long partnership

Communist Manifesto (1848) Das Kapital (1867) Problems with Capitalism: Factory system exploits the worker surplus value Capitalist system leads to greater division in society Communism (Marxism)

Ideas: Economy biggest and recurring force in history Human societies have always been divided into warring classes Based off philosopher Freidrich Hegels theory haves (bourgeoisie) vs. have nots (proletariat) The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have the world to win. Workingmen of all countries, unite.

Marxs New World Order Proletariat is much larger and would use its numbers to revolt Workers would create a dictatorship of the proletariat Period of cooperative living and education, then the state or government would wither away and a classless society would be developed This allows for Communism Elimination of private property, all goods and means of production owned by the community everyone equal The Labor Movement Marx and others create First International in 1864

Large meeting in London of labor activists, anarchists, German theorists Unsuccessful due to arguments, too many different factions Ferdinand Lassalle forms Social Democratic political party Successful in Germany France too divided, England had Fabian Society or influence of Christianity

The Labor Movement The Second International (1889-1914) Golden age of Marxism 12 million members, more cohesion Goals: 8 hour workday Welfare state Universal suffrage The Socialist Labor Movement Successes: Strengthened labor unions

Helped workers gain labor and living improvements How? Sometimes gained some political power in government legislatures Sometimes caused fears of a revolution General Topics: Causes, effects, results of the Industrial Revolution Inventors and inventions Economic ideologies capitalism vs. socialism

Karl Marxs ideas and theories The factory system labor, hardships, unions, etc Terms and names

Laissez-faire capitalism Zollverein Thomas Malthus Saint-Simon Charles Fourier (Fouray) John Kay Adam Smith James Hargreaves Frederick Engels Robert Owen

James Watt Henry Bessemer Unit Assignment / RQ 1 Why did industrialization begin in Great Britain?

Henry VIIIs naval conquest Napoleonic Wars Sufficient population, hardworking, inventive Risk-taking private sector, government support Good communications, transportation, ports, merchant fleet Flexible, merit-based social structure, stable society Bank of England provided money, financial stability Unit Assignment / RQ 2

How did the Industrial Revolution Spread from Britain to the rest of Europe? Political and economic reforms Increased government support, banking systems improve to favor industrialization Zollverein Bribed British industrialists, inventors, scientists Industrial espionage

Eventually transportation and communication improved RQ 3 Why did the industrialization fail to bring a decent standard of living to the first generation of industrial workers?

Factory system favored owners, not workers Competition for jobs no job security Brand new labor, lifestyle Urban population explodes city officials, planners cant handle large populations efficiently Unit Assignment 3 / RQ 4 What is the relationship between socialism and industrialization?

Industrialization caused the birth of socialism Socialism is a response to the factory system/industrialization/capitalism Industrialization (capitalism) Factory owner owns all the property, production, and wealth Factory workers overworked, underpaid, own none of the

property and gain no wealth Rich keep getting richer, poor getting poorer Socialism Calls for the public to own all the property, production, and share all the wealth evenly Better wages, worker rights, working conditions, living conditions, etc Minimize divide between rich and poor

Isms Response to Industrialization Capitalism Adam Smith The Wealth of Nations; Economic liberty guarantees progress In Practice? Little to No government interventionat first Liberalism Freedom of the individual, equal rights for all, fair competition (heavily supported by the middle-class) Utilitarianism Jeremy Bentham & John Stuart Mill; The Greatest Good for the Greatest Number In Practice? Not a very direct road map for legislation but rooted in socialism Socialism

System in which the factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all In Practice? Government involvement of economy through the existing political structure Communism The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have the world to win. Workingmen of all countries, unite. In Practice? Overthrow existing structure; Dictatorship leads to no government Utilitarianism Utilitarianism - People should judge ideas, institutions, and actions on the basis of their utility

Jeremy Bentham The greatest good for the greatest number John Stuart Mill led the movement Cooperative system of agriculture, womens rights, reforms in legal and prison systems, education, do away with great wealth differences Cultural Responses: Romanticism 1800-1850 Realism 1850-1880 Impressionism 1880-1905 Romanticism - Movement of Revolt

Heart vs. reason; emotion vs. intellect; mysterious vs. rational; individual vs. set formula; senses and imagination vs. everything else the heart has its reasons which reason does not know. Romanticism Varied from country to country; reacts to movements Britain: industrial society France: glory of man and liberty Germany: promotion of national unification Spain: reaction against Napoleonic rule

Artists: Goya, J.M.W. Turner, Constable, Delacroix Authors: Emily Bronte, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Victor Hugo, Wordsworth, Coleridge, Byron, Keats, Shelley Composers: Beethoven, Mendelssohn, Chopin, Liszt Realism Went against Neo-Classicism and Romanticism Life as it was stripped of idealism Impact of industrialization Focus on working class Realism

Reaction to the fluffy, bizarre, and unrealistic Romantic era Demonstrated life the way it was Fit with Marx, Bismarck, and critics of bourgeois society Artists: Millet, Courbet, Ford Madox Brown Writers: Emile Zola, Honore de Balzac, Charles Dickens Impressionism Color and light become the subject of the painting Free brush strokes Impacted by development of photography

- daguerrotypes Artists: Degas, Manet, Monet, Renoir, Pissaro Unit 8: Unification & Politics of the 19th Century (1815-1914) Germany Before Unification 39 States: The German Confederation Two dominant states Austria & Prussia

Prussias advantages Mainly German population Powerful Army Industrialization Early Action towards Unification Zollverein (1834): German customs union Purpose was to stimulate trade, increase revenues of member states Left out Austria why? Wanted to weaken Austrias power over German states Relationship between Austria and other states deteriorate

Prussia Frankfurt Assembly (1848) Movement for German unification (excluding Austria) fails Olmutz (1850) Major European powers afraid of German unification Prussia forced to give up unification plan and accept the renewed German Confederation,

still dominated by Austria Prussians refer to it as Humiliation of Olmutz Move towards more liberal government under King William I (ruled 1861-1888) William I & Bismarck William I: Conservative Supported by Junkers (nobles) Allowed liberals and moderates in government Wanted to strengthen army and unify Germany

Liberals refused to approve army build-up Calls upon Otto Von Bismarck for assistance in 1862 stalemate over budget Realpolitik politics through sheer force and power To gain practical results, make no moral or ideological considerations just do it Ends justify the means Bismarcks Realpolitik

Bismarck urges king to ignore the liberals in government Enforce taxes, build army Bismarck becomes leader of unification movement named Prime Minister by William Bismarck a master politician Would wisely assess a political scene, used cleverness and force to accomplish goals The great questions of the day will not be decided by speeches and resolutions, that was the blunder of

1848 and 1849 but by blood and iron. Bismarcks Main Goal: UNITE GERMAN STATES Bismarck unites Germany in three steps STEP ONE Create alliance with Austria 1864 Went to war with Denmark over bordering regions of Schleswig and

Holstein Prussia & Austria win in six weeks Prussia got Schleswig Austria got Holstein Bismarck knew this arrangement would cause tension Just what he wanted WHY? STEP TWO Create conflict with

Austria Border conflicts between Prussia and Austria over Schleswig & Holstein With war looming, Bismarck isolates Austria from allies Convinces France to stay neutral Promised Italy control of Venetia (still owned by Austria)

Lures Austria into war Austro-Prussian War Seven Weeks War Prussia defeats Austria at Battle of Sadowa (July 1866) Results of war: Austria lost Venetia to Italy (who helped Prussia) Prussia gained control of northern German states STEP TWO

STEP THREE Needed the Catholics in the South to feel a sense of German nationalism France was isolated by Bismarcks diplomacy Ems Dispatch Bismarck altered a telegram sent from Prussia to France outrages both nations France declares war

(1870) STEP THREE Franco-Prussian War (1870) France launches attack on southern German states Outside attack stirred nationalism in south, desire for protection Prussia sweeps down and defeats French at Battle of Sedan, Siege of Paris

French surrender Treaty of Frankfurt (1871) France owes compensation, forfeits Alsace and part of Lorraine Second Reich proclaimed (First Reich refers to Holy Roman Empire) William I crowned emperor of German Empire Mission Accomplished: Germany is United

The Second Reich King William I (AKA Kaiser Wilhelm I) from House of Hohenzollern Hohenzollern monarch had ruled in Prussia and parts of Germany for centuries Kaiser headed federal union, 26 states, 41 million in population Bicameral legislature: Bundersat (upper house) Reichstag (lower house)

Legislature does not have power over Chancellor Chancellor Otto Von Bismarck Bismarck believes effective states have one faith, one law, one ruler Distrusted Catholic Church, Socialist party Launched: Kulturkampf persecution against Catholics Tried to suppress socialists, Socialist Democratic Party Despite Bismarcks anti-socialists laws, party gains popularity

Eventually compromised on both issues William I dies in 1888 His son, Frederick III is crowned new Kaiser More open to socialist and liberal movements Plans to apply more liberal ideas in Germany Dies of cancer after 3 months of ruling His son, William II (AKA Wilhelm

II) crowned new Kaiser rules from 1888-1918 Will be last of the Hohenzollern rulers by 1918 New Kaisers Kaiser Wilhelm II New emperor lacked finesse, intelligence of father and grandfather

Resented Bismarcks power, pressured him into retiring Germany still progressed flourished Highly competitive industry against Britain Dominated world market in chemicals, electrical industries High literacy, vocational training, government supported industry The Austrian Empire: What is a big problem here?

Decline of Austria Nationalism rising throughout empire Problem for Austrians? NOT Austrian nationalism: Hungarian, Polish, Romanian, German, Czech, Italian, Slovakian, etc. Hungarians demanding equality with Vienna Revolution for independence in 1848 fails 1864 Defeat in Austro-Prussian War Afterwards, King Franz Joseph I (Habsburg) offers Hungary equal power

Ausgleich constitution accepted in 1867 Creates a Duel Monarchy: Franz Joseph now king of Hungary and emperor of Austria Dual Monarchy of AustriaHungary Both Austria and Hungary had own constitution, language, flag, economies, etc Ethnic crises in both parts of the empire 8 different nationalities, languages, cultures, etc Hungarians try to force Magyarization Forcing diverse citizens to practice only one

language and culture: Hungarian Complete disunity and disorganization Chaotic, weak and inefficient empire would last until 1914 Italy Before Unification Italy reorganized at Congress of Vienna in 1815 Austria ruled Lombardy & Venetia Spanish ruled Kingdom of Two Sicilies

Piedmont-Sardinia was the most powerful of the Italian States, ruled by King Charles Albert an Italian monarch Early Action Revolutions of 1830 Giuseppe Mazzini attempts to organize a movement Takes power from fleeing Pope Pius forms a Roman Republic France invades, restores

Popes power Revolutions of 1848 Many states granted temporary liberal constitutions Both Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi involved in this movement Piedmont-Sardinia Takes Control King Victor Emmanuel II Monarch of Sardinia Prime Minister Camillo Cavour

aristocrat Liberal, uses diplomacy against Austria Gains support of Britain & France Uses Realpolitik Together will lead unification Goal at first: strengthen Sardinias power, not to necessarily unify Italy Focused on Northern Italy What empire was in their way in Northern Italy?

Austria Out Of Italy! Made secret arrangement with Napoleon III to provoke a war with Austria 1858 Austria is lured into attacking Sardinia, France comes to defense and Austrians are driven out France will get Nice and Savoy Italians get part of Northern Italy but not Venetia They will get Venetia later by helping the Germans fight Austria in 1866

Things worked out well so Cavour sets his sights on southern Italy. Unification? Meanwhile in the South Garibaldi & his Red Shirts captured Sicily in 1860, inspiring Sicilians to join the cause for unification Cavour secretly supports Garibaldi Why is he helping? Garibaldi marches north toward Rome and the Vatican

Cavour afraid of implications, calls for vote in conquered territories Voted to unite southern areas with Sardinia Garibaldi stepped aside Italy Unified! almost. Whats the problem? Italian Unification Ruled by Victor Emmanuel II

1866 added Venetia as a result of the Seven weeks War (also called the Austro-Prussian War) 1870 added Papal States Pope still governed Vatican City Challenges: Regional conflicts Industrialized north vs. agricultural south Peasant revolts, economic problems Political conflict leads to violence Mass emigration to United States Italy enters 20th century a

poor and struggling nation Frances Second Empire and Third Republic 1848-1870 Napoleon III (1808-1873) No experience in politics Nephew of Napoleon I 1848 elected to four year term; share power with National Assembly Somewhat influenced to Marxs

ideas Still suppressed workers & peasants who opposed him Strengthened his power 1851 illegally dismissed Assembly; people voted to make him president for ten years 1852 declares himself emperor Napoleon III The Second Empire of France (1852-1870)

Successes: Improved industrialization Helped build the Suez Canal Improved railways Allowed for some local government Legalized labor unions

Right to strike guaranteed Haussmannization urban renewal in Paris The Second Empire of France (1852-1870) Failures:

Rigged elections Secret police Failed puppet regime in Mexico through Maximilian I 1870 Defeated In Franco-Prussian War Ends Napoleon IIIs rule and Second Empire Third Republic of France Bismarck imposes harsh peace terms The French bankrupt & in disarray humiliated

Assembly of wealthy royalists formed Paris Commune (1871) Coalition of resistance lower classes wanted better rights & a republic Commune savagely repressed, Assembly cant agree on king, facing pressure from lower classes Choose a republic as least disagreeable compromise: The Third Republic of France (1871) Constitution approved by 1875

Despite weak Republic, France stable and prosperous by 1914 Reform in Great Britain Legislation can solve problems 19th Century England: Undemocratic? What was going on in England in the 1800s? Industrialization many problems for poor Problems need to be fixed by government What type of government was ruling in England?

Parliament representative democracy Power to the people Politically, who ruled in Parliament? The Conservatives The Tory Party (since 1770s) Led by Duke of Wellington Severely repressed poor with laws and harsh tactics Unfair representation: Manchester & Birmingham had no representation in government Reform in England Problems growing, not being fixed:

Tories forced out by 1830 Whig Party takes over more liberal Led by Lord Charles Grey Help lower classes Chartism movement to reform: Ends capital punishment, modern police force Labor union restrictions removed, right to strike, worker insurance Reforms in public housing, education Voting reforms: Universal manhood suffrage, secret ballot, end to property requirements, pay for members of Parliament

Working class men 1867, rural workers 1884, women 1919 Names of British Reform 1820s Robert Peel and George Canning Reforms increased in 1830s and 40s Chartist movement, regulation of working conditions and hours, repeal of the Corn Laws Corn laws (1815) prohibited imported grain, benefit landowners Reform Act of 1832 Middle class gains voting rights 1867-1880 Gladstone & Disraeli

Alternated as Prime Ministers of England Gladstone was a Liberal; Disraeli a Conservative Both achieved immense reform during reigns 1900 The Labour Party Political party demanding social and economic reforms Both Liberals and Conservatives felt threatened Pushed through a number of social insurance reforms as a result What direction did the reforms move in? 1828 & 1829

Protestants 1832 1833 1847 1848 1830s & 40s 1870s 1875 Catholics and non-Anglican Middle class suffrage Abolished slavery Women and children Public Health

Chartists Education Strikes allowed The Irish Dilemma England ruled Ireland since 1603 Oppression of Irish Catholics Irish Economic hardships Potato famine of 1845 Chartism brings small reform: Some protection from eviction No longer pay dues to Anglican Church

Irish nationalism causes independence movements led by Charles Parnell: Gladstone agrees to home rule (1914) Postponed when WWI begins Easter Uprising (1916) Ireland gains independence by 1921 Excludes Protestant-heavy Northern Ireland Anti-Semitism & Europe Anti-Semitism has been nurtured by periods of social instability and crisis. Anger is deflected onto scapegoats such as an available, isolated

minority such as the Jews Ancient Rome Devotion of Jews to their religion and special forms of worship were used as political discrimination; denied Roman citizenship Crusades & Middle Ages Jews massacred in great numbers; segregated into ghettoes and required to wear identifying garments Modern Anti-Semitism 18th & 19th centuries Enlightenment & FR Increasing separation of church and state, rise of modern nation-states; Jews experienced less

persecution and gradually integrated Legal reforms changes things but racism persisted; political party platforms Eastern Europe Medieval traditions isolating Jews as an alien economic and social class solely for reasons of religion were never broken Pogroms a product of deliberate govt policy aimed at diverting the discontent of the workers & peasants in Russia The Dreyfus Affair 1894-1906 Who was Dreyfus?

Captain in the French army; one of the few Jewish officers Accused of selling secrets to Germany How can nationalism contribute to the growth of antiSemitism? Key Events & Players 1894 charged with passing military secrets to the Germans based on handwritten evidence

Found guilty and sentenced to life in prison Major Esterhazy was the real author; tried and acquitted in 1898 Emile Zola brought international attention to the case with J'accuse! in 1898 Case reopened in 1899 with new evidence A hasty trial found him guilty again; sentenced to 10 years; pardoned by the President Wasnt officially exonerated until 1906

Impact Strength of Anti-Semitism Persecution of Jews was actually much worse in Eastern Europe Zionist Movement 1890s The movement to work for a separate homeland in Palestine Theodor Herzel was the leader Dreyfus Affair Wrap Up

How did Nationalism affect Anti-Semitism? What effects did this have on France? Political split: Conservatives, Army, Church Anti-Dreyfus VS Liberal and Moderates Dreyfus supporters Leads to Separation between Church and State (1905) Eventually more cohesion between political factions

The Modernization of Russia What event highlighted the backwardness of Russia in the 1850s? The Crimean War battle for power of Eastern Europe Russia v. France, Britain, Sardinia, Ottomans Unable to supply their armies on the Crimean peninsula Russia needed railroads, better armaments, and to reorganize the army Russia: Tsarist Autocracy The Romanovs Alexander I (1801-1825) Congress of Vienna

Nicholas I (1825-1855) Decembrist Revolt: failed attempt at a constitution Alexander II (1855-1881) Reformer: abolished serfdom Crimean War Alexander III (1881-1894) Reactionary (restored power); pogroms Sergei Witte Finance Minister Nicholas II (1894-1917) Russo-Japanese War

Revolution of 1905; Russian Revolution The Great Reforms of Alexander II 1. Freeing of the Serfs 1861 Problem: Land owned collectively 2. Establishment of the zemstvo Local assembly elected by towns, peasant villages &

noble landowners Very little autonomy 3. Reform of the legal system Independent courts, equality before the law 4. Censorship relaxed, education & policies toward Jews liberalized WHAT IS THE PROBLEM WITH REFORMS IN AN AUTOCRACY?? Industrialization

Political changes limited but economic changes working 1860 1,250 miles of railroad; 1880 15,500 Sergei Witte Encouraged foreign investment in Russian industry By 1900, steel production 4th; producing half the worlds oil; exported grain Russo-Japanese War 19031905 Again, a major defeat led to turmoil at home This defeat combined with separatist nationalist

movements (Poles, Ukrainians), liberals in the business & professional classes, disgruntled factory workersall led to demands for change Bloody Sunday Nicholas II losing popularity fast October Manifesto Nicholas II granted full civil rights and an elected Duma Duma VERY limited by the Fundamental Laws (Russian Constitution)

Dismissed twice; landowners assured seats In 1914, Russia was partially modernized, a conservative constitutional monarchy with a peasant-based but industrializing economy. Revolution of 1905 Unit 9: Imperialism 1880-1914

Imperialism The takeover of a country or territory by a stronger nation with the intent of dominating the political, economic, and social life of the people of that nation. Goals for Unit 9: To know the economic and territorial gains Europeans made during this era. To be able to explain how Europeans ruled in their newly conquered lands and how they varied. To understand the impact of Imperialism on Europe and the world

To become better at using maps to observe the changing face of the world due to European expansion. To be able to explain why the once powerful Ottoman Empire declined during this time. Goals for Unit 9: To understand the impact of Britains rule over India. To realize the influence of Europeans on the nations of China, Japan, and Southeast Asia To develop an understanding of why the once powerful China declined during this time, and what role European nations played in Chinas downfall.

To understand why Japan eventually became stronger in response to Imperialism and European influence To develop an understanding of the Asian nations. To further understand the effects of geography upon history. Why Imperialism? National Pride Economic competition France vs. Germany, Britain vs. Germany,

Britain vs. France Social Darwinism Survival of the fittest Used as justification Africa Before Imperialism Demographics 1,000 different languages Hundreds of ethnic groups Religion

Traditional beliefs, Christianity, Islam Politics Large empires to independent villages Why is this important information? Europeans Arrive Explorers, missionaries, humanitarians, reporters at first Why not until the late 1800s? Industrial Revolution

Needed new markets and raw materials Technological superiority Maxim Gun Medical Breakthroughs Quinine to battle Malaria What did Africa Have to Offer? Mining: Congo: copper and tin South Africa: gold and diamonds

Agriculture: Cash-crops Peanuts, palm oil, cocoa, rubber More colonies means more power Pre-Conquest of Africa French in Algeria by 1830s Portuguese had Angola & Mozambique British took Cape Colony during Napoleonic Wars European powers only

controlled about 10% of continent until 1870s The Scramble for Africa King Leopold II of Belgium (1876) in Congo Forms International Africa Association (IAA) Influences Otto Van Bismarck Economic/power reasons Wants to divert French

hostility toward Germany Calls for Conference Berlin Conference 1884-1885 Headed by Bismarck Germanys entrance into the game changed the rules European claims to African territory had to rest on effective occupation in order to be recognized Also agreed to work to stop slavery and the slave trade

No firearm or liquor sales in certain areas Missionaries free to spread Christianity Africas Response to Colonization European technology outmatches most African armies Maxim gun, gunboats, etc Europeans susceptible to disease Solution? Recruit rival African tribes to

help fight each other African leaders weigh options: Build alliances with Europeans, other tribes? Make accommodations? Negotiate? Africas Response to Colonization Samori Toure Western African leader Created powerful Islamic Kingdom

30,000 man army Fought with invading French in 1881 and lost, moved east After internal rebellions, and imposing British forces from the west Captured and exiled in 1898 African Response to Colonization Religious leaders more effective in uniting why? Religion unites, politics divide Muhammad Ahmad (1844-1885) in

Sudan Muslim shaykh (head of tribe, village, religious order) Proclaimed himself the Mahdi (1881) Muslim messiah, savior of the faith Establishes jihad and successfully takes back British controlled land until 1898 The Shona tribe rises up against British in South Africa in 1890s African Response to Colonization Ethiopia only area to successfully keep European

powers out Menelik II becomes emperor and unites the region Starts to modernize and expand Ethiopia Makes agreement with Italians for Red Sea coast 1896 Italians break treaty Battle ensues at Aduwa 100,000 Ethiopian soldiers vs. 20,000 Italian soldiers Italians make numerous

mistakes in battle, are embarrassed in defeat. The Mineral Revolution Diamonds discovered in 1867 in Southern Africa and thousands (both black and white) flocked to area to mine 1873 European diggers lobby for British to establish laws prohibiting Africans from owning claims sets tone for future laws European mine owners employ Africans

Compound system controls labor The Mineral Revolution 1886 Gold discovered in Transvaal Transvaal is Afrikaner territory led by President Paul Kruger New discovery renews British interest in controlling the Transvaal Kruger determined to protect Transvaal from uitlanders 1888 Cecil Rhodes and Barney Barnato join to found De Beers

De Beers comes to control 90% of diamond production Rhodes becomes prime minister of Cape Colony in S.A. Expands British borders in S.A. The Boer War South Africa (1899) Rhodes attempts invasion of Transvaal and fails Rhodes forced to resign invasion is seen as reckless Afrikaners and Orange Free State ally and modernize army Boers

Alfred Milner replaces Rhodes Gave Kruger a list of demands that could not be met, war breaks out First modern total war Boers used guerilla tactics British burned Boer farms; imprisoned women & children in disease-ridden concentration camps 30,000 Afrikaners and 15,000 blacks died in the camps 1902 Union of South Africa created, controlled by the British

By 1907 a self-governing dominion of the UK After the War British try to Anglicize Afrikaners but fail Afrikaners controlled the government (first three Prime Ministers were Afrikaner) and gained official recognition of language English speakers controlled the civil service and dominated the business sector They did work together to preserve white dominance over the black majority 70% of population controlled on 13% of land Civilized Labor policies of the 1920s Low-level civil jobs blacks held were given to large

population of poor, unskilled whites Paves the way for Map Quiz Next Class! Identify the following on the map:

Egypt Libya Sudan Ethiopia Angola Mozambique Algeria Democratic Republic of the Congo South Africa Nigeria

Kenya Botswana Malawi Rwanda Uganda

Mali Chad Somalia Tanzania APARTHEID (1948-1994) Apartheid (separateness) a system of legal racial segregation Rights of the majority black inhabitants of South Africa were curtailed Minority rule by whites was maintained. Racial segregation in South Africa began in colonial times but Apartheid now an official

policy in 1948 New legislation classified inhabitants into racial groups, and residential areas were segregated sometimes forced removals 1958 Blacks deprived of citizenship of S.A. Now citizens of one of ten tribally based selfgoverning territories called bantustans Segregated education, medical care, and other public services Black services were made inferior to white ones Forms of Colonial Control Colony A country or region governed internally by a foreign power

Protectorate A country or territory with its own internal govt but under the control of an outside power Sphere of Influence An area in which an outside power claims exclusive investment or trading privileges Economic Imperialism Independent but less developed nations controlled by private business interests rather than by other governments

Imperialist Management Indirect Control Relied on existing political rulers Legislative council that included colonial officials as well as local merchants and professionals Councils trained local leaders EX: Britain Direct Control

Africans are unable to handle power paternalism Brought in their own officials and did not train local people Assimilation: local populations would become absorbed into culture EX: French & Belgians The Ottoman Empire (1300-1923)

Anatolia descendants of nomadic Turks Militaristic & Invading No strong central power Government organized by ghazis Broken up independent states, warriors for Islam Osman (Othman) build strong state until his death in 1326 His dynastic successors expand territory and create the Ottoman empire

The Islamic Empires The Islamic Empires Safavid Empire (15011736) Present day Iran (Persia) Squeezed between Ottomans and Mughals Forced to become militaristic

Shiite Muslims Persecuted by Ottoman Sunni Muslims Mughal Empire (15261857) Present day Northern India Islam forced on partly Hindu population Overexpansion, poor leadership weakens empire by 1800s Enter England Ottoman Empire: Notable Sultans Mehmet II (1444-1481) Captured Constantinople in 1453 Ends Byzantine Empire, renames city Istanbul

Selim the Grim (1512-1520) Defeated Safavids Swept through Syria, Palestine and into North Africa Suleiman (1520-1566) Reached its peak size Dominated Eastern Med., controlled coastal cities of Africa as well as interior trade, pushed into Europe Only Charles V rivaled his power Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire in Decline

17th and 18th centuries Ottoman empire in decline Weak army janissary corps Not industrializing Selim III (1789-1806) attempted to modernize Restructured army Set up foreign embassies Mahmud II (1808-1839) Restored central authority Established new army (Euro trained) Restructured government

Nationalism Dividing Nationalism stirring in Ottoman lands Serbs revolted in 1804 Greeks in 1821 Romanians in 1850s Bulgarians in 1870s All supported by Western Europe why? Geopolitics: an interest in or taking of land for its strategic location or products Western Europe wanted a balance of power European Involvement

Crimean War 1853 Russia vs. Ottomans France & Britain help Ottomans win Egypt Ottoman control since 1517 French briefly took over 1800 Ottoman and British end French occupation Muhammad Ali in power (1801) Westernizes Egypt Reforms military, economy, agriculture, education

Under Muhammad Ali broke away from Ottomans Grandson Ismail constructed the Suez Canal Opened 1869 1882 British controlled it Young Turk Revolution Abdulhamid II (1876-1909) Reformer and autocrat 1889 students form Committee for Union and

Progress Want to combine Islamic culture with Euro ideas and technology Young Turk Revolution (1908) Constitution and assembly instated End of Ottoman monarchy, CUP in control Ottoman Empire By 1914

British in India British present since 1600s Mughal Empire collapsing in 1700s 1757 East India Company the major power Had an army made up of sepoys Sepoy Rebellion 1857 Cartridges of rifles sealed with beef and pork fat

Offends both Hindus and Muslims Mughal emperor reluctantly heads rebellion British use total war tactics The British took direct command: The Raj Direct rule - paternalism Indians could not overcome their religious differences: Hindu vs. Muslim Sikhs remained loyal to the British British direct rule 1757-1947

Cabinet minister in London British Viceroy in India Local Councils made up of Indians Indian Nationalist Movement Ram Mohum Roy (1772-1833) Began a campaign to move India away from traditional practices; these practices were allowing foreigners to control them Widow suicide, child marriage, caste system Indian National Congress 1885

Made up of both Indians and Britons The Muslim League 1906 Form after the partition of Bengal Both groups begin to call for selfgovernment After Gandhis death the Muslim League will create Pakistan British & Malayan Peninsula British in Malaysia 1796 Gained Singapore as well as most of

Malayan peninsula Geopolitics trade Tin, rubber Gained Burma (present day Myanmar) Encouraged Chinese immigration Conflict still exists between Malaysians and Chinese Dutch in Indonesia Dutch

Indonesia referred to as Dutch East Indies Dutch East India Company present since the early 1800s Sugar, tobacco, coffee, tea Created a rigid social class system 1. Dutch 2. Wealthy & Educated Indonesians 3. Plantation workers 1. Forced production, poor working conditions, little rights gave way to independence movements French Indochina

Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam Protectorates Did not encourage local industry Paternalism, assimilation Rice production went up Siam (Thailand) neutral zone under King Mongut Modernized Thai economy Warded off foreign rule Experience of Southeast Asia Products: sugar cane, coffee, cocoa, rubber,

coconut, bananas, pineapple Europeans encouraged immigration from other Asian nations Why? To diversify the population no unity Southeast Asia became a melting pot of Hindus, Muslims, Christians, and Buddhists Many problems still exist between these groups today in this area U.S. in the Pacific U.S. involved in imperialist activity Purchased Alaska in 1867

Overthrew Hawaiian Queen in 1893 Spanish American War 1898 Gained Puerto Rico, and Guam, and Philippines Promised to prepare them for self-rule Economic exploitation American-Philippine war 400,000 killed or imprisoned China

China Led by Manchus of Qing Dynasty Strong agriculture, mining, manufacturing Rice, sweet potatoes, peanuts, salt, tin, silver, iron, silks, cottons, porcelain, maize Tribute system states subordinate to China and receive gifts and protection in return

Self-Sufficient They didnt need anything the West had to offer Had more people than any empire in the world Opium Foreigners only allowed in one port They earned more from their exports than they spent on their imports trade imbalance The British were determined to even out the balance Smuggled in Opium for non-medical use

By 1835 12 million Chinese addicted Opium War Turning Point 1839 Chinese vs. British Superior British Navy humiliated the Chinese Treaty of Nanking 1842 Britain gained Hong Kong 1844 Treaty gave US extraterritorial rights Internal Problems 430 million people by 1850 Hunger widespread; Huang He flooded regularly

Government Inaction Dikes in disrepair, granaries empty, bribery for jobs Many begin to turn against Qing Dynasty CHINESE NATIONALSIM GROWING Taiping Rebellion 1850-1864 Led by Hong Xiuquan Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace all would share Chinas vast wealth; there would be no poverty

Imperial troops, local militias and British & French forces fought to put down rebellion 20 million dead DEMAND REFORMS! Taiping Rebellion put down Western Ways or Chinese Traditions? Dowager Empress Cixi 18611908 Supported some reforms but generally conservative

Sino-Japanese War 1894 Leads to renewed aggression of West Open Door Policy 1899 Chinas doors are open to all nations China never becomes a colony but it is at the mercy of foreign powers Chinese Nationalists hate the presence of foreigners! Boxer Rebellion 1900

Reforms being suppressed Society of Harmonious Fists (referred to as Boxers) Peasants and workers who resented foreign privileges; resented Chinese Christians Death to the Foreign Devil! Surround European section of Beijing Begin to imprison and kill Europeans Soldiers from Britain, France,

Germany, Austria, Italy, Russia, Japan & the US defeated the Boxers Rebellion a failure but Nationalism is not dead!! JAPAN Prior to 1867 ruled by the Tokugawa Shogun Tightly ordered society cut off from the West Traded with China and Dutch traders in Indonesia; contact with Korea

Commodore Matthew Perry arrived in 1853 Treaty of Kanagawa 1854 opened up two ports to American ships 1860 foreigners allowed to trade in all treaty ports 1863-1864 Imperial naval fleets bombard two rebel-prone cities The Meiji Era: 1867-1912 Japanese annoyed with Tokugawa for giving into foreigners The Meiji Restoration

Peaceful coup by young samurais 1867 End of military dictatorship of the Tokugawa Restructures government Ruled for 45 years Enlightened Rule Emperor Mutsuhito The Meiji Government Japanese sent to study foreign ways

Liked Germanys centralized govt, the skill of British Navy, and American system of public education Industrialization By 1914 7,000 miles of railroad Coal production grew, factories built, developed shipbuilding, weapons production as well as local industries Who is left behind as Japan modernizes? Satsuma Rebellion 1877 Now irrelevant samurai rebel over

30,000 are killed Iwakura Mission (1871) Japanese Imperialism By 1890 strongest military power in Asia Build an empire to secure their interests War with China over Korea 1895 Sino-Japanese war Within a few months the

Chinese were driven from Korea and Japan began to move into Manchuria Peace treaty gave Japan its first colonies Europeans very surprised that Japan won Russo-Japanese War 1905 The two major powers in East Asia Went to war over Manchuria and Korea Japan easily defeats the

Russians (really bad for Russia) Treaty of Portsmouth: forced Russia to withdraw from Manchuria and stay out of Korea Japan is THE power in East Asia Korea & Japanese Imperialism After the Russo-Japanese War the Japanese dont hold back in Korea

1905 made a protectorate 1910 Japan annexed Korea For the next 35 years brutal Japanese rule Forbade public protest Shut down newspapers Took over schools Replaced the Korean language

Took away land KOREAN NATIONALISM GROWS!! RQ 1 What were the motives of European colonizers for conquering most of Africa in the last nineteenth century? Economic competition (Industrial Rev.) Rare natural resources & new markets

More colonies = more power Geopolitics National Pride Social Darwinism Spread of Christianity RQ 2 What difference did the discovery of gold and diamonds have on the relations between the British and Afrikaner and African states?

Afrikaners = Gold in the Transvaal region Led to Boer War between British vs. Afrikaner Africans = Diamonds in South Africa British take over South Africa mines (De Beers) Compound system Laid foundation for Apartheid RQ 3 How did Europeans administer their African colonies? Indirect rule vs. Direct rule RQ 4

In the 19th century, what were the pressures for change inside and outside the Ottoman Empire? Inside: Failing centralized govt Janissary Corps weakening, bankrupting empire Nationalism Not modernizing, industrializing

Outside: Geopolitics: western Europe supporting internal revolutions, etc. RQ 5 How did British colonialism inspire a subcontinent of fractured principalities to develop a sense of nationalism? India: very divided culturally, religiously British economically and politically dominate India growth of unity against common enemy Through reform, improving infrastructure, working for more self-government, Indians

gain nationalism RQ 6 What combination of local and international factors determined the fate of Southeast Asian countries in the face of European imperialism? Southeast Asia very diverse: ethnicity, religion, culture, etc. Also not modernizing economies, armies, etc. Allows for European takeover Forced cross-immigration, direct rule tactics

RQ 7 What domestic and foreign pressures brought about Chinas decline from being the worlds economic engine in the 18th century to being a failing monarchy, hobbled by unequal treaties, in the early twentieth century? Imperialist powers wanting to even out trade imbalance Not modernizing Government inaction Numerous revolts RQ 8 What was the meaning of modernity and

what did the Japanese do to attain it in the late 19th century Japan? Japan realized it was overpowered by imperialist countries Iwakura mission sent out to learn foreign ideas and technology Government, education, army all modernized Resulted in becoming world power Unit 10: World War One Goals of Unit 10 To be able to explain the system of alliances in Europe and their influence upon the War.

To understand the technological advances made possible due to the war. To recognize the impact of the war upon Europe and the world. To understand the rise in power of the Bolsheviks in Russia and how it changed the traditional Russian government. To further develop the skills of using maps by examining the changing face of Europe during the war years. Britain in 1914 Strong, stable, prosperous

Led by King George V in 1914 Prime Minister David Lloyd George Germany by 1914 Unified in 1871 Progressed fast Very strong army, industry, economy, etc.

Led by Kaiser Wilhelm II Italy by 1914 United in 1861 (fully by 1870) Poor, struggling nation Regional and political conflicts Led by King Emmanuel III (Grandson of King Victor Emmanuel II)

France by 1914 Weak republic, but stable and prosperous by 1914 Led by elected president Raymond Poincare Russia by 1914 Partially modernized, slowly industrializing Conservative constitutional monarch After Revolutions of 1905 Peasant-based population Led by Nicholas II

Japan by 1914 Meiji era quickly and efficiently modernized Japans military, economy, government, etc Sino-Japanese War (1895) and RussoJapanese War (1905) Quickly become strongest power in Asia Led by Emperor Taisho Son of Meiji (Mutsuhito) Ottoman Empire by 1914 Weak and dwindling Constitution and Assembly created after Young Turk Revolution in 1908 Led by Committee of Union and Progress

(Sultan Mehmed V had no real power) Austria-Hungary by 1914 1867 Dual Monarchy created Complete disunity and disorganization Chaotic, weak and inefficient empire would last until 1914 Led by Franz Joseph His nephew & heir to the throne is Franz Ferdinand What major incident led to the break out of

World War One? How can one bullet cause a whole world war? There were four M.A.I.N. causes of WWI June 18, 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated by Bosnian-Serb assassins M

Militarism (Arms Race) Definition: Making your military bigger and better than other countries. Symbol of national prestige, Social Darwinism, arms race What problems can arise when countries compete against other countries for military strength? Militarism Country Defense Expenditures (mil) 1890

1914 Germany 144 554 British Empire 157 384

Japan 24 96 France 186 287 Russia

145 442 US 67 314 Source: W.S. Morton. Japan: Its History and Culture., 3rd ed. (New York:McGraw Hill, 1994), p. 182. A

Alliances An agreement between two or more countries to help each other. It can include military help, money or providing of weapons. Late 1800s many countries in Europe made various alliances, Triple Entente (Britain, Russia and France) and The Dual Alliance (Germany and Austria-Hungary) How can complex alliances cause a problem? I

Imperialism / Industrial Revolution During the 1800s the Industrial Revolution was happening in Europe. Competition for colonies, economic rivalries With the invention of factories, weapons were less expensive to produce allowing countries to improve and buy them in mass quantities. Countries were also experimenting with new weapons such as airplanes, tanks, chemical warfare. How can imperialism cause a problem among competing nations? N

Nationalism Devotion to the interests or culture of one's nation Excessive pride in ones nation How can excessive nationalism be a contribution to WWI? Goal of Today Met? What were the MAIN causes of World War

One? Ottoman Empire North and South of Ottoman Territory are the independent states of Romania, Serbia, Greece, and Bulgaria The Austro-Hungarian Empire Included states of Croatia and Slovenia Occupied Bosnia and

Herzegovina since 1878 Pan-Slavism Pan-Slavism : A movement advocating the political and cultural union of Slavic nations and peoples. Serbia desired to create a Slavic state Greece and Romania are not Slavic Movement to unify Slavic states into a single nation: Yugoslavia Slavic people look towards Serbia as possible center of this new nation Serbia and Bulgaria conflict over Slavic leadership

Crisis in Eastern Europe Conflict Bosnian Crisis of 1908 Russia & Austria vs. Ottomans, France & Britain First Balkan War 1912 Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro, & Serbia vs. Ottoman Fight over Macedonia and size of Bulgaria Second Balkan War 1913 Austria intervenes over Albania; Russia comes to Serbias aid

Third Balkan War 1914 Austria-Hungary wanted a local war but that was impossible Declarations of War June 28, 1914 Archduke Francis Ferdinand assassinated Ultimatum to Serbia delivered July 24th Austria declares war on Serbia July 28th August 1st Germany declares

war on Russia August 3rd Germany declared war on France August 4th Britain declares war on Germany By the end of August, Japan declares war on the Central Powers By 1915, the Ottoman Turks join the Central Powers Taking Sides Allied Powers: Russia, France,

Great Britain, Japan, Serbia, Italy Italy claimed its membership in Triple Alliance was a defensive strategy, changed sides Central Powers: Germany, AustriaHungary, Ottomans, Bulgaria Bulgaria and the Ottomans hoped to regain lost territories

Germany Strikes Schlieffen Plan: Attack France in the West first, then turn around and attack Russia in the East March through unfortified Belgium to take France quickly Russias lack of railroads would make it difficult to mobilize their troops

Battle of Marne First Battle of the Marne (Sep 1914) French and British stop and push back surging German army Schlieffen Plan fails Allies win battle Problem Allies are slow to chase retreating Germans Results in trench warfare and the

formation of the Western Front The Western Front New Technology Machine Guns Flamethrowers Poisonous Gas Tanks & Planes Land Mines Mortars

Consequences of Trench Warfare By Dec 1914 1.5 million dead Single battles claiming 100,000+ lives Borders on the Western Front hardly moving War of Attrition A war in which there are no decisive, conclusive battles. The two sides grind away at each other until one side is too exhausted and gives up

Propaganda Information, ideas, or rumors spread deliberately to harm or influence a person, group, movement, institution, nation, etc The Home Front Total War 1914: Enthusiasm Nationalism Support of the masses leads to an energetic war effort Demand for Men & Weapons

Economic life and organizations had to change Home Front - Economics Free market Capitalism abandoned Government decided what was to be produced and consumed Rationing, price and wage controls Effective and destructive Soldiers on the Battlefield & the Home Front

there are entire nations armed. Thus the men (and women) who remain to till the soil and man the factories are not less a part of the army than the men beneath the battle flags. - Woodrow Wilson Home Front Social Impact Poverty & Unemployment were the norm prior to 1914.But now Full employment Labor unions part of policy making (socialist ideal)

Women: equal pay for equal work Blurred lines between rich and poor Home Front - Politics 1914-1916 popular support for the war After 1916 there is a shift Soldier morale declining Easter Uprising in Ireland Public opposition to the war Government Attempts to

Control This Widespread censorship; propaganda Good news overstated; Bad news avoided Goal of Today: What helped the Allies survive this war of attrition, and how did the unstable political and social conditions of the Central Powers, help turn the tides of WWI towards an Allied victory?

Battle of Gallipoli 1915 British wanted control of Turkish owned Dardanelles Canal to ship supplies to Russia Australia and New Zealand (Anzacs) provide army Fails miserably, over 200,000 die Central Powers win battle

Russia on the Eastern Front 1915 Russias military tactics, technology, and leadership outmatched Russian forces defeated in Poland 1.2 Million Russians killed, 1 million more imprisoned Central Powers win battle

Battle of Verdun Allies plan: Deny Germany badly needed supplies Fewer, but bigger attacks Feb 1916 Fought over strategic location Lasted months French regain lost forts, no clear winner 700,000 dead

Battle of Somme July 1916 British attack German lines along the Somme River British lose 60,000 in the first day Lasts until November 1.2 Million dead No clear winner Western front New Alliance

1917 enter US, exit Russia Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Lenin-controlled Russia backs out of war, signs treaty with Germany German unrestricted submarine warfare Lusitania German subs sink passenger ship 1,000 die, 100 American

Zimmerman Note Germany urging Mexico to attack U.S. The War Ends July 1918 Second Battle of the Marne Last German attempt United States adds much needed strength to Allies Bulgaria and Ottomans surrender; AustroHungarian Empire falls apart; Turn against Kaiser Wilhelm

Germany is forced to surrender Allies win battle, war The War Ends November 11, 1918 Armistice Day Complete surrender in Paris Allies victorious Treaty of Versailles Decision-makers The Big Four

Woodrow Wilson US Georges Clemenceau France Lloyd George Great Britain Vittorio Orlando Italy Problem: All are going to have very different agendas and visions for post-war Europe.

Goals of the Treaty of Versailles USA: Wilsons aim was to achieve a just and lasting peace The 14 Points The League of Nations Europe: But, France and Britain wanted to punish Germany and strip it of its war making power

Italy wants compensation Wilson will have to compromise Treaty of Versailles War Guilt/Reparations The Allies forced Germany to sign a war guilt clause and pay reparations Military Restrictions The agreement limited

the size of the German army and prohibited Germany from importing or manufacturing war materials Treaty of Versailles Territorial Changes German territories in Africa and the Pacific and Ottoman lands were declared mandates Austria, Hungary, Poland, Czechoslovakia,

Yugoslavia, Finland, Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia were created as independent nations Treaty of Versailles Legacy Left a legacy of bitterness, betrayal, and hatred that would erupt into a second world war. Aftermath of WWI Almost 20 million dead

Four empires crumbled: German Empire Ottoman Empire Russian Empire Austria-Hungarian Empire Problem with crumbling empires? Empires replaced with broken up republics with shaky leadership

New political boundaries, trading patterns, etc. Colonial world in disarray Aftermath of WWI European economies ruined U.S. owed more than $10 billion from Europe Allies had borrowed from each other Bolshevik Russia renounces debts Weimar Rep. of Germany suffers massive inflation Cannot afford war debts

Causes tension, Euro countries occupy Ruhr to collect fails U.S. creates Dawes Plan (1924) to handle German reparations Bends rules of Treaty of Versailles Followed by Young Plan (1929) European economies begin to improve U.S. Stock Market Crash (1929) Leads to the worldwide Great Depression

Day 8: Russian Revolutions of 1917 (RQ8 Due) WARM UP: Karl Marx was a German philosopher and ideologist who called for a violent and overwhelming social revolution of the working class (proletariat) What do you think works better: One big, immediate revolution and overthrow OR Gradual change over time (various reforms, protests, etc)

WHY? Karl Marx (1818-1883) The Russian Revolutions of 1917 But first: a quick reminder remember Revolution of 1905 Russia not modernizing, falling behind other world powers Loss of Russo-Japanese War

(1905) humiliating defeat Russians upset with oppression, no democracy, loss of war Bloody Sunday Nicholas II losing popularity fast October Manifesto Nicholas II granted full civil rights and an elected Duma Duma VERY limited by the

Fundamental Laws (Russian Constitution) Dismissed twice; landowners assured seats The March Revolution (1917) Russia did not have the resources to fight a modern war - WWI Nicholas II failing at the frontlines Spontaneous revolution of striking men and

women led to abdication of Nicholas II March 12, 1917 The Duma declared a provisional government The end of Tsarist Autocracy The Provisional Government Made a number of reforms

Equality before law; freedom of religion, speech, assembly; right of unions to organize and strike Alexander Kerensky New Government split in two: 1. Liberal bourgeoisie and moderate Vladimir Lenin socialists (Kerensky) who were

technically in power 2. Petrograd Soviet: urban workers, soldiers, and radical intellectuals (Lenin & Trotsky) Leon Trostky Their Differences Provisional Govt (Kerensky): wanted to continue fighting WWI Bolsheviks (left-wing Marxists Lenin and Trotsky) were opposed to the war Military power essentially in the hands of the

Bolsheviks under the leadership of Trotsky Lenin (1870-1924) Leader of the Bolsheviks Marxism-Leninism: Lenin argued that the revolution had to be led by a small conspiratorial elite of revolutionaries Waiting for the so-called proletarian revolution in agricultural Russia would be futile. Urban workers would only

develop a trade-union consciousness and lose their vigor and determination for social reform November Revolution Lenin arrived in Russia in April 1917 Red Guards: workers armed forces There was little bloodshed when the Guards began to seize govt property Take over, exile Kerensky Council of Peoples Commissars Redistribution of land

Worker control of factories through workers committees Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (March 1918) Had to give up some Russian territory with 1/3 of Russian population (Poles, Lithuanians, Finns) Russia is out of WWI Civil War (1918-1920) Whites (Anti-Bolsheviks) vs. the Reds (Bolsheviks) Allies support the Whites

Lenin turned to a one-party govt: Communists Encourage worldwide revolution based on the principles of socialism Trotsky led the Reds to victory War Communism: Bolshevik policy to Nationalize banks and industries; seize grains & introduced rationing; and they reestablished the Cheka (secret police) to exterminate foes prison camps, harsh rule, fear Now the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) AKA Soviet Union New Economic Policy

War Communism is failing and the USSR is facing economic collapse after the civil war N.E.P. (New Economic Policy) Designed to restore Russian economy Introduced some aspects of private ownership among the peasants They could sell surpluses in free markets and buy from private traders and manufacturers Is this true communism? Lenin compromised his Marxist ideals in order to survive RQ 1 What were the specific causes of WWI? Balkan Wars

Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand Ultimatum given to Serbia by Austria-Hungary RQ 2 What were the effects of WWI on the home front? Free-market capitalism abandoned More government intervention Rationing, price, wage controlled Full employment women take up jobs in factories Less class conflict, less wealth gap Propaganda keeps morale good

RQ 3 Why was it so difficult for Allied leaders to achieve lasting peace in Europe? Different motives and agendas at treaty talks: US: Lasting peace, less punishment England, France, Italy: Compensation and punishment of Germany RQ 4 In what ways did the First World War destroy global economic equilibrium? 20 million dead, some land and cities destroyed

Europe spent millions on war effort All in debt to each other Germany punished with financial compensation Leads to economic chaos in Germany, Europe Colonial world in disarray RQ 5 How did the revolutions of 1917 transform Russia? Overthrow of Nicholas II leads to end of Tsarist Autocracy Russians now have representation in government (Duma)

Bolsheviks transform Russia into Communist society: Redistribute land, workers own factories, Russia leaves WWI forfeit land War Communism nationalize banks, industry; seize and ration grains War Communism fails, N.E.P. created Infuses some capitalist ideals into Communist Russia Stalins Russia 1925-1953 Totalitarian Dictatorship Stalin Video Terms Five Year Plans

Series of plans to increase industrial output Collectivization System Stalin put in place to steal crops and agricultural resources from farmers Kulaks Wealthiest farmers who owned most land, resources, laborers, machinery harshly exploited during collectivization Famine in the Ukraine Over 1 million die of starvation, many in work camps Great Purge

Stalin systematically eliminating any threat to his power so he can gain total control Propaganda/Censorship/Secret Police Man of Steel By 1928 in total command of the Communist Party Aspects of Totalitarian Rule

Dictatorship and one party rule Dynamic leader Ideology State control over all sectors of society State control of the individual Dependence on modern technology Organized violence Dangerous Leaders Rise Post WWI political and economic chaos, Great

Depression lead to rise of totalitarian and/or fascist regimes: Joseph Stalin (USSR) Francisco Franco (Spain) Benito Mussolini (Italy) Hirohito (Japan) Adolf Hitler (Germany)

Totalitarianism focuses all efforts on empowering the state Fascism Extreme Nationalism + Militarism = Fascism Emphasized loyalty to the state and obedience to its leader Revive economy, restore national pride, punish those responsible for hard times

Nations must struggle peaceful nations get conquered Wore uniforms, used special salutes, and held mass rallies Fascism & Communism

Similarities Both ruled by dictators One-party state Denied individual rights The state is of utmost importance No democracy Differences Fascists did not seek a classless society Fascists parties didnt focus on working class; Instead aristocrats,

industrialists, war veterans, lower middle class Communists were internationalists; Fascists were nationalist Italy What was going on in Italy that allowed a Fascist dictator to come to power? Bitter disappointment over the Treaty of Versailles Didnt get the territory they

wanted Rising inflation & unemployment Upper and middle classes feared a communist revolution Mussolini Newspaper editor & politician Founded the Fascist Party in 1919 As conditions worsened he gained

more popularity Played on the fears of a workers revolt Mussolini Gains Power October 1922: 30,000 Fascists March on Rome King Victor Emmanuel III put Mussolini in charge of the government Il Duce The Leader Abolished democracy & all other political parties Used a secret police, censored

radio and publications Outlawed strikes Allied with industrialists and large landowners Franco in Spain Spain had been a monarchy until 1931; a republic was declared and it was run by liberals and socialists The Fascists staged a revolt in 1936 under Francisco Francos leadership

Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) Franco was assisted by Hitler and Mussolini Other Western powers did little to help the Spanish Republic to fight back against Franco Franco 1939 Franco became Spains Fascist dictator Rules until his death in 1975 Royal family turned power over to the Spanish people Spanish Republic was created

Post-War Germany Germanys new Weimar Republic failing after WWI unstable, war guilt, inflation, unemployment 1923-1929 economy recovering 1929 Great Depression starts Hitler Rises to Power in

Germany Little-known political leader Fought in World War I 1920 joined the National Socialist German Workers Party Nazi Party Supported by middle and lower middle classes Hitler Attempted to seize power in

1923 He spent nine months in jail; wrote Mein Kampf which summarized his ideas: Blond and blue-eyed Germans, Aryans, were a master race Jews, Slavs, Gypsies etc. were subhuman Versailles Treaty an outrage; regain German lands Lebensraum: living space; to be gained by conquering eastern Europe and Russia

Nazi Party Not very popular until the Depression was in full swing By 1932, the largest political party January 1933 President Paul von Hindenburg named Hitler chancellor Hitler Consolidates his Power Reichstag Fire Six days before an election, a fire

destroyed the parliamentary building Blamed on the communists Nazis won the majority in that election; Hitler then demanded absolute power for four years Banned all other political parties Created the SS to get rid of opponents The Gestapo secret police use terror to guarantee obedience Government took over business & labor; strikes and labor unions outlawed

So much terror Why did people like him? Germans constructed factories, built highways, manufactured weapons, and served in the military Unemployment dropped from 6 million to 1.5 million by 1936 Hitler molded public opinion He used the press, radio, literature, painting and film as propaganda tools Book burnings in public squares Churches forbidden to criticize the

government Children had to join the Hitler Youth Racial Science and Propaganda Hitler & the Jews Less than 1% of German population Nazis used them as scapegoats for Germanys troubles since the war Anti-Semitic laws began to be passed in 1933 November 9, 1938

Kristallnacht Signaled the real start of eliminating the Jews The Holocaust Anti-Semitic laws began to be passed in 1933 1935 Nuremberg laws passed Took away German citizenship The Holocaust 1935-1942

Germany starts to invade and occupy Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland (Millions of Jews reside) Deportation and resettlement in ghettos Work camps starting to be opened Produce weapons for war, materials, etc Worked to death 1942-1945 Final Solution Auschwitz, Dachau, etc death camps Approx. 6.5 Million Jews killed

2 million non-Jews killed Turning a Blind Eye Martin Niemoller was a Protestant pastor and head of the antiNazi Confessing Church. Arrested for 'malicious attacks against the state', he spent seven years in the Dachau and Sachsenhausen Released in 1945 by the Allies. He penned the moving and oft quoted poem: In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because

I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me -- and by that time there was nobody left to speak up. -Martin Niemoller Appeasement What do you think the word appeasement means? Appeasement giving into demands to avoid conflict Why do you think the idea of appeasement is going to be a crucial factor in WWII starting?

Japan Invades Manchuria 1931 Japan invades Manchuria region of China For economic benefit Clearly strong nation bullying a weaker one League of Nations does very little: Threaten trade boycott Not enforced, countries trade with Japan anyway why? Economic depression nations need trade

Italy Invades Ethiopia October 1935 Mussolini invades Ethiopia with Hitlers support Revenge for humiliating defeat of Italians by Ethiopia in 1896 League of Nations again does nothing Hitler Militarizing Treaty of Versailles

forbids and restricts German armament 1935 Hitler announces German rearmament 1936 German armies move in unopposed into the demilitarized Rhineland League of Nations again does nothing Spanish Civil War Spanish Civil War breaks out (19361939) Fascist government vs. republican

government Germany and Italy help fellow fascist General Franco Franco and Spanish Fascists win control Francos 40 year dictatorship begins Democracy falls in another European country League of Nations again does nothing Japan Invades China 1937 Japan conducts mass invasion of China

(1937) Second Sino-Japanese War Rape of Nanking Japanese army murders 300,000 unarmed Chinese civilians League of Nations again does nothing Appeasement League of Nations policy of appeasement, past negligence, and

U.S. isolationism all lead to Hitler gaining more power Hitler breaks Treaty of Versailles: Builds up German military Remilitarization of the Rhineland region (1936) Annexes Austria (1938) Anschluss movement (reunification of Germany and Austria) Hitler convinced European leaders each step of expansion would be his last League of Nations appeased every

demand of his Hitler demands annexation of Sudetenland (small bordering region of Czechoslovakia) Munich Conference called to discuss (Sept. 1938) Tense talks lead to appeasement of Hitlers demand English Prime Minister Chamberlain: I have returned from Germany with peace in our time. All of Czechoslovakia annexed months later

Russo-German Nonaggression Pact signed (1939) Stalin and Hitler promise no military aggression against each other This ensures Hitler will not fight a two-front war like WWI and also allows for an easier invasion of Poland Hitlers motives clear France & Britain finally takes a stand Warns Hitler an invasion of Poland would merit war declaration

Hitler attacks Poland one week later (Sep 1, 1939) War declarations ensue WWII starts Belligerents as of 1940: Allies: Britain, France, Poland VS. Axis: Germany, Italy, Japan Battle Lines Drawn

Causes of WWII? Too much negative aftermath from the Treaty of Versailles Hitlers imperialistic actions Failure of Appeasement policy Failure of the League of Nations Not all countries joined the league League had no power, no army, unable to act quickly Lightening Strikes Sept 1939 Germany defeats Poland Months of inactivity some

suspected a phony war Hitler amasses & consolidates military April 1940 Hitler suddenly launches blitzkrieg attack Lighting warfare using tanks, planes, infantry simultaneously very effective Norway, Denmark, Netherlands, Belgium all defeated instantly Lightening Strikes France invaded and surrenders by

June 1940 Italy joins and invades weakened France before surrender Britain is last of the Allies left standing in Europe America shocked begins immediate military built up Hitler begins bombing Britain with planes All-air Battle of Britain ensues Britain temporarily fights off Germany U.S. begins loaning Britain

weaponry and supplies Lend-Lease Act Atlantic Charter June 1941 Paranoid Hitler breaks pact with Russia and attacks Moscow Russia joins the Allies FDR sends $1 billion to help Russia Germanys quick invasion fails by December due to harsh winter August 1941 Atlantic Conference called as meeting between Winston Churchill, Franklin Delano Roosevelt

(and absent Stalin) Atlantic Charter created to discuss aid to Soviets & layout plans for postwar Main points similar to Wilsons 14 Points: New peace-keeping organization U.S. rapidly moving away from isolationism and neutrality End of U.S. Neutrality Japan beating China badly in since 1937 Numerous massacres of

Chinese civilians and sinking of USS Panay angered Americans July 1941 In protest, U.S. puts embargo on Japan who heavily relied on U.S. oil Japans solution was to attack American code breakers suspect possible Japanese activity in the Pacific Philippines? British Malaysia? Australia? Pearl Harbor

December 7, 1941 Japan launches all-out sneak attack on U.S. naval bases in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii 3,000 Americans killed, Pacific fleet of U.S. Navy almost entirely wiped out America declares war, joins Allied Powers War in Pacific Dec 7, 1941 Japan

launches series of attacks on American and British islands in Pacific: Guam, Wake Island, the Philippines, Hong Kong, Dutch East Indies, coastal China, etc By March 1942, all islands except the Philippines had fallen to overpowering Japan Japan defeats Allies in Battle of the Philippines 75,000 American and Filipino POWs subjected to Bataan

Death March Japan seemed unstoppable Battle of Midway Code breakers intercept messages of surprise attack on Midway Island June 7, 1942 Battle of Midway Japans surprise attack spoiled, ambushed by waiting U.S. fleet U.S. routs Japan: 3,000 Japanese killed vs. 300 Americans killed 4 Japanese carriers sunk vs. 1 American

carrier 250 Japanese aircrafts shot down vs. 150 American aircrafts Midway was the turning point of war in the Pacific Japans fleet virtually wiped out War in Pacific Americas new plan in Pacific: island hopping AKA leapfrogging Do not attack mainland Japan yet Attack the weaker islands around

the Pacific one by one Build airbases on each island Cut off resources to Japan Main islands of Japan would then be bombed into submission Progress was being made, but slowly and at great costs Belligerents as of 1942: Major Allies: Britain, Russia, United States, France VS.

Major Axis: Germany, Italy, Japan Turning Point 1940-1942: German dominance Germany occupying most of Europe Britain trying to hold off Hitler Controlling the seas with deadly u-boat wolf packs 1942: turning point of war in Europe (and Pacific)

Germanys enigma code broken Prowling u-boat wolf packs can now be located Allies begin to win Battle of the Atlantic Supplies can now easily be shipped to Britain & France Hitler Halted Britain bombs Germans in Cologne, France Americans bomb Germany

Sept 1942 Battle of Stalingrad Russians stop German offensive at Stalingrad, begin successful counteroffensive Hitler Halted Oct 1942 Battle of El Alamein German Gen. Erwin Rommel dominating North Africa Nicknamed the Desert Fox

Stopped by the British from gaining control of Suez Canal Germany stopped in both campaigns Endures heavy losses, retreat ensues The Soft Underbelly Burdened Soviet Union urges Allies to open second front FDR wants to invade

through France Churchill wants to invade through Northern Africa and Italy Soft underbelly Soft underbelly approach chosen to lure war away from Britain The Soft Underbelly Nov 1942 Gen. Dwight Eisenhower leads successful campaign in North Africa

Jan 1943 Casablanca Conference FDR & Churchill agree to seek unconditional surrender of Germany Germans pushed out of Africa by May 1943 Sept 1943 Allies invade south Italy Mussolini overthrown, Italy surrenders German soldiers keep fighting invading Allies Invasion slow and bloody Allies finally take Rome by June 1944 Campaign soon becomes just a diversion

D-Day Invasion Nov-Dec 1943 Tehran Conference FDR, Churchill, and Stalin meet to coordinate Plans of a new invasion of France made Gen. Eisenhower chosen to lead the operation June 6, 1944 D-Day Invasion Over 150,000 Allied soldiers successfully invade beaches of

Normandy region on French coast Largest amphibious assault in history Invading Allies spread through France into different campaigns Effects of D-Day Invasion Paris liberated by 1945 Huge morale boost for Allies Germany in full-on retreat

End was nearing for Hitler and German army War in Europe Nazis make one last centralized push at Ardenne Forest Dec 1944 Battle of the Bulge Surprised Americans pushed back Creating a bulge in the battle line Largest and bloodiest battle for American Army Americans hold on to key city of

Bastogne until Allied reinforcements arrive Germans eventually defeated, resume retreat Both America and Russia converging towards Berlin Holocaust Discovered Holocaust had been just an rumor and thought to be embellished at most Retreating Germans accelerate final solution

Advancing Allies shocked as they begin to discover Nazi concentration camps German civilians forced to march through camps Katyn Massacre Poland, 1943: Katyn Massacre discovered by Nazis 22,000 Poles secretly executed in 1940 Soviets blamed Nazis, Nazis blamed Soviets Evidence surfaces it was Stalins orders Helps cause tension between Allies and Russia

Germany Surrenders April 1945 Russia reaches Germany Hitler kills himself May 8, 1945 Germany officials surrender V-E Day (Victory in Europe) War in the Pacific By 1945, U.S. weakening Japan:

U.S. subs destroying Japanese merchant ships U.S. bombers devastating Japanese cities with firebomb campaigns Mar 1945 Two day firebomb raid on Tokyo 1/4 of city demolished and 80,000 deal War in the Pacific Series of costly, hard-fought, U.S. victories:

Mar 1945 Battle of Leyte Gulf Gen. MacArthur recaptures the Philippines Mar 1945 Battle of Iwo Jima U.S. takes small, but strategic island June 1945 Battle of Okinawa Last island before Japanese mainland American victory But with 50,000 American casualties The Atomic Bomb

Japan refusing to surrender Seen as dishonorable to give up Kamikaze suicide missions increase Must protect their godlike emperor U.S. leaders know invasion of Japan would be grueling and deadly Manhattan Project Since 1940, U.S. secretly began developing worlds first atomic bomb Mostly worked on by ex-German scientists 1945 Tested in New Mexico and ready for use

July 1945 Potsdam Conference American, British and Russian officials meet to give Japan final ultimatum: Surrender or be destroyed Japan Surrenders Japan refuses to surrender, continue hostility American aircrafts drop leaflets warning of atomic bomb, urging evacuation of targeted cities Aug 6, 1945 Atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima 70,000 die instantly, 200,000 casualties

overall Aug 8, 1945 Russia declares war on Japan Invades Manchuria Japan still refuses to answer Potsdam Declaration, Aug 9, 1945 Second bomb dropped on Nagasaki 80,000 killed War Ends Aug 19, 1945 Japan

officially surrenders WWII ends V-J Day Postwar Settlements Japan devastated Ready to return to democracy Europe Reconstruction Bitterness from conflicts Denazification of Germany Nuremberg trials Nazi officials tried for war crimes

Yalta Conference (1945) Occupation zones established Germany divided Paved way for Cold War United Nations established Wrapping Up WWII War stops German, Italian, Japanese aggression Unprecedented millions killed in war Losses:

Germany: 4.2 million Allies: 1.5 million USSR: 25 million Yugoslavia had highest per capita deaths: 1 in 10 Asian population drops by 55 million

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