Music: An Appreciation 9th-10th Edition by Roger Kamien Part I Elements Musicvital part of human society Provides entertainment, emotional release, accompanies activities Heard everywhere in modern life Recorded music is a 20th century innovation Internet access, portable audio Live performancespecial excitement Experience affected by emotional state of both
performer and audience Evaluating music performances Background music vs. alert, active listening Perceptive listening enhances enjoyment Knowledge of musical elements enhances perception Ch. 1 - Sound: Pitch, Dynamics, Tone Color Our world is filled with sounds Sounds can be pleasant or unpleasant Humans are able to focus on specific sounds Can ignore sounds that do not interest us Sound
Begins as result of a vibrating object Transmitted through a medium - air Our eardrums vibrate, too Impulses sent to brain for processing Music: organization of sounds in time Four main properties of musical sounds Pitch Dynamics Tone color Duration
Pitch: Highness or Lowness of Sound Determined by frequency of vibration Fast vibration=high pitch; slow vibration=low pitch Generally, smaller vibrating objects=higher pitches In music, definite pitch is a tone Tones have specific frequencies e.g., 440 cycles (vibrations) per second = A Irregular vibrations create sounds of indefinite pitch Interval: distance between 2 tones Octave: doubling/halving of frequency Tones an octave apart seem to blend together
Western music divides octave into 12 tones Non-western music may divide into different number Range: distance between voice or instruments highest & lowest possible tones Tone Color (timbre) Quality that distinguishes tones Can be bright, dark, mellow, etc. Changes in tone color create variety and contrast Tone colors add a sense of continuity Specific melodies with specific tone colors Unlimited variety of tone colors
Composers frequently blend sounds of instruments to create new tone colors Modern electronic techniques create new tone colors Listening Outlines, Vocal Music Guides, and the Properties of Sound Listening Outlines & Vocal Music Guides Helps focus attention on musical events as they occur Preceded by description of the musics main features Listening Outline - points out notable musical sounds Vocal Music Guide helps the listener follow the thought, story, or drama * Suggestion: while listening to one passage, look ahead to what is next.
Dynamics Relative loudness of a sound Related to amplitude of vibration producing sound Changes in dynamics may be sudden or gradual Accent: tone played louder than tones near it Italian terms used to indicate dynamics pianissimo pp very soft
piano p soft mezzo piano mp moderately soft mezzo forte mf moderately loud
f loud ff very loud Extremes: forte ppp, pppp, fortissimo fff, ffff Crescendo: gradually louder Decrescendo (diminuendo): gradually softer
Listening Lohengrin, Prelude to Act III (1848) by Richard Wagner Listen for: Dynamic & mood contrasts Texture of the full orchestra Listening Prelude in C Minor for Piano, Op. 28, No. 20 by Frdric Chopin Note: Contrasts in dynamics Tempo constant throughout Listening The Firebird, Scene 2 (1910)
by Igor Stravinsky Note: Tone Colors through instrumentation Dynamic contrasts Listening C-Jam Blues (1942) by Duke Ellington and His Famous Orchestra Listen for: Tone Colors Repeated note melody Improvised solos Muted brass instruments Ch. 2 - Performing Media: Voices and Instruments Voices unique ability to fuse words & musical tones Voice range is based on physical makeup
& training Voice classifications Female Male Soprano (highest) Tenor Mezzo-soprano Baritone Alto Bass (lowest) Vocal music is frequently performed with instrumental accompaniment Musical Instruments mechanism (other than the voice) that produces musical sounds
Western instruments: 6 broad categories String Woodwind Brass Percussion Keyboard Electronic Made in different sizes for range Tone color varies with the register Provide entertainment; used for accompaniment
Instruments popularity rises & falls with changing musical tastes (See modern symphony orchestra) String Instruments Sound produced by vibrating a tight cable The longer the string, the lower the pitch Orchestral bowed instruments Violin Viola
Cello (violoncello) Bass (double bass) Common playing techniques Pizzicato Double stop Vibrato Mute Tremolo Harmonics Some string instruments not played with bow Guitar & harp use plectrum (small wedgepick) Woodwind Instruments
Traditionally, woodwinds made of wood In 20th Century, metal & plastic became common The longer the tube, the lower the pitch Holes along instrument serve to lengthen the tube Main orchestral woodwinds and ranges: Flute Family Clarinet Family Oboe Family Clarinet Oboe
Bassoon Family Piccolo Flute English horn Bass clarinet Bassoon Contrabassoon Woodwindssingle note instrument Sound produced by blowingplayers breath Whistle mouthpiece Single reed Double reed Saxophonesingle reed inst. common in jazz Brass Instruments
Orchestral brasses (in order of range): Trumpet, french horn, trombone, tuba Cornet, baritone horn & euphonium used mainly in concert and marching bands Sound produce by blowing into mouthpiece Vibration of players lips produces sound Sound exits through flared end called bell Pitch changed in 2 ways: Pressure of players lips (together or against mouthpiece) Lengthening the instrument via slide or valves Trombone uses sliding tubes Others use valves connected to additional tubing Generally, the longer the tube, the lower the pitch Tone color is altered by inserting mute into bell
Brass provides power and emphasis in music Percussion Instruments Sound (generally) produced by striking, shaking, or rubbing the instrument Instruments of definite pitch produce tones Those of indefinite pitch produce noise-like sounds Definite Pitch Indefinite Pitch Timpani (kettledrums) Snare drum (side drum) Glockenspiel
Bass drum Xylophone Tambourine Celesta Triangle Chimes Cymbals Gong (tam-tam) Membranes, pieces of wood or metal vibrate
Percussionists must play many instruments Percussion traditionally emphasizes rhythm 20th Century musicgreater use of percussion Keyboard Instruments Use piano-type keyboard for control Capable of several notes at once Best known: Piano Created ~1700 & refined through ~1850 Sound created when felt hammer strikes tight string Pedals affect sound 88 keys
Harpsichord Important ~1500 through ~1775 Sound produced by small wedges plucking string Pipe Organ Most prominent ~1600 to ~1750 Wide range of pitch, dynamics, & tone color Sound produced by air being directed to pipes Pipe sets of various materials produce different tone color Pipe sets put in play by using knobs called stops Accordion Air bellows drives reeds controlled by keyboard & buttons
Electronic Instruments Produce or amplify sound using electronics Invented ~1904, significant impact only after 1950 Modern technology blurs lines between instrument types, recording, computer, and hybrid devices Tape studio: main electronic tool of 1950s Synthesizers came into use in 1960s Huge machines first built in mid-1950s Analog synthesis dominated until ~1980 Digital (FM) synthesis came to forefront in 1980s Effects devices were integrated into digital synthesizers Sampling technology advanced in 1990s
MIDI (1983) allowed connection of devices Small computers develop in 1970s & 80s Modern composers connect these devices, use software, and write new types of music Listening The Young Persons Guide to the Orchestra, Op. 34 (1946) by Benjamin Britten Listen for: Theme, variations Contrast Repetition Various orchestral instruments Listening The Stars and Stripes Forever (1897)
by John Philip Sousa Note: Band Instrumentation March Ch. 3 - Rhythm ~ Flow of music through time ~ Particular arrangement of note lengths Beat Recurrent pulsation Divides music into equal units of time Meter Grouping of beats
2s & 3s and strong & weak beats Accent and Syncopation Accent: note is emphasized Syncopation: emphasis placed on an unexpected note or beat Tempo The speed of the beat, the pace Associated with emotional effect Tempo indicated at beginning of piece As with dynamics, Italian terms are used Molto, non troppo, accelerando, ritardando
Metronomeindicates exact tempo Ch. 4 - Music Notation Written music stores information Allows composers to communicate their ideas to others Notating Pitch Letter names: A B C D E F G Staff Grand staff G Clef or Treble F Clef or Bass Notating Pitch Keyboard note naming with notation
Notating Rhythm Music notation indicates length of tone in relation to other tones in the piece How note looks indicates duration Notating Silence Rests indicate notated silence Notating Meter Time signature indicates the meter of a piece of music Appears at beginning of piece Appears again later if meter changes
Written as two numbers, one above other 2 3 4 2 Top number: how many beats per measure Bottom number: what type note counts 1 beat Common & cut time, duple & triple meter The Score Includes music for every instrument Can include 20+ lines of music at once See example in text Ch. 5 - Melody
A series of single notes that add up to a recognizable whole Begins, moves, ends Tension & release Stepwise vs. leap motion Climax Legato vs. staccato Made of phrases (parts) Sequence within melodies Cadence: Complete vs. Incomplete Ch. 6 - Harmony The way chords are constructed and how they follow each other Chord: 3 or more tones sounded at once Chord is simultaneous tones Melody is series of individual tones
Progression: how chords follow each other Consonance and Dissonance Stable, restful chordsconsonant Unstable, tense chordsdissonant Degree of dissonancemore & less dissonant Resolutionmovement away from dissonance The Triad Simplest, most basic chord Made up of three notes Notated on 3 adjacent lines or spaces Triad built on 1st scale note called tonic
Most stable, restful chord Pieces usually begin & end on this chord Triad built on 5th scale note: dominant Most unstable, tense chord Dominant to tonic movement feels conclusive Broken Chords (Arpeggios) Chord tones sounded in series Ch. 7 - Key Centering of a melody or harmony around a central note The Major Scale Whole steps and half steps occurring in a predetermined order
Bright, happy sound The Minor Scale Whole steps and half steps occurring in a different predetermined order Dark, sad sound Listening Prelude in E Minor for Piano, Op. 28, No. 4 (1839) by Frdric Chopin Note: Harmony for variety and movement The Key Signature Pieces using major scalesmajor key Pieces using minor scalesminor key Number of sharps or flats played
determines scale and key Also determines key signature Key signature notated at beginning of piece between clef sign and time signature The Chromatic Scale Utilizes all 12 notes within the octave Includes both black and white piano keys This scale does not define a key Modulation: Change of Key Provides contrast within longer piece Modulation like temporary shift in gravity New tone and key becomes home Tonic Key
The main key of a piece Modulations away usually return to the tonic key Return to tonic creates feeling of conclusion Return to tonic usually occurs near end of piece Ch. 8 - Musical Texture Layering of sound, how layers relate Monophonic Texture Single, unaccompanied melody Literally one sound Polyphonic Texture 2 or more equally important melodies
sounding simultaneously Homophonic Texture One melody with chordal accompaniment Changes of Texture Within a piece, creates variety and contrast Listening Farandole from LArlsienne Suite No. 2 (1879) by Georges Bizet Note contrasting textures Ch. 9 - Musical Form Organization of musical elements in time
Techniques that Create Musical Form Repetitionrestating musical ideas Contrastavoiding monotony w/ new ideas Variationreworking ideas to keep them new Types of Musical Form Ternary Simple Subdivided A B A aba cdc aba
Listening Dance of the Reed Pipes from Nutcracker Suite (1892) by Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky Note ternary form Types of Musical Form Binary AB AA B ABB AA B B Types of Musical Form Ternary
ABA A B A A Section, then B section, and back to A section (if A, then last A section is not identical to the first A section). Listening Boure from Suite in E Minor for Lute (1710) by Johann Sebastian Bach Note binary form Ch. 10 - Performance
The Performer brings to life the printed symbols laid out by the composer Virtuoso Concertmaster or principal violin (conductors immediate let) The Conductor leads a group of musicians Responsibility and authority Baton VS hand
Ch. 10 Performance (contin.) Improvisation Recorded and Live Performance Dubbing Judging Performance: musicians can play the same notes and yet make different statements in the way that they perform. Ch. 11 - Musical Style Characteristic way of using melody, rhythm, tone
color, dynamics, harmony, texture, and form Western art music can be divided into: Middle Ages450-1450 Renaissance1450-1600 Baroque1600-1750 Classical1750-1820 Romantic1820-1900 20th Century to 1945 1945 to present
Shaped by political, economic, social, and intellectual developments Seikilos epitaph First recorded written music song Around 1st Century AD Hellenistic (Greek)
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