Motivation and Emotion PowerPoint Presentation by Jim Foley 2013 Worth Publishers Module 28: Basic Motivational Concepts, the Need to Belong, and Achievement Motivation Topics you might be driven to learn about Models of Motivation: Instincts and
Evolutionary Psychology Drives and Incentives Seeking Optimum Arousal levels A Hierarchy of Motives The Need to Belong The Pain of Being Shut out Social Networking The Motivation to Achieve, to Work Motivation Motivation: a need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it
towards a goal. For example, Aron Ralston found the motivation to cut off his own arm when trapped on a cliff in Utah in 2003. What motivated him to do this? Hunger? The drive to survive? The drive to reproduce? Perspectives on Motivation Instinct Theory Evolutionary Perspective Hierarchy of Needs/Motives There are different
ways of thinking of the way motivation works, all of which relate to the push of biological processes and the pull of culture, social forces, and ideals. Arousal [Optimization] Theory DriveReduction Theory Do Instincts Direct Human Behavior? An instinct is a fixed (rigid and predictable) pattern of
behavior that is not acquired by learning and is likely to be rooted in genes and the body. Human nesting behavior Instinctual nesting Instincts Evolutionary Perspective Other species have genetically programmed instincts motivating their actions. Do humans? Human babies show certain reflexes, but in general, our behavior is less prescribed by
genetics than other animals. We may, however, have general patterns of behavior which can be explained as emerging through natural selection. Instinct theory has given way to evolutionary theory in explaining human behavior. Drive Reduction A drive is an aroused/tense state related to a physical need such as hunger or thirst. Drive-reduction theory refers to the idea that humans are motivated to reduce these drives, such as eating to reduce the feeling of hunger. This restores homeostasis, a steady internal state. Seeking Optimum Arousal
Some behavior seems driven by a need to either increase or decrease our physiological arousal level. Curiosity, as with kids and these monkeys, may seek stimulation to reach an optimum arousal level. A hunger for stimulation, novelty, makes humans infovores, seekers of knowledge. Performance and Arousal Level
What happen when we succeed at raising our arousal levels? Below: the effect of arousal on Yerkes-Dodson Law: Arousal levels can help performance but too much arousal can interfere with performance. For taking an exam, moderate arousal might be best. performance depends on how comfortable we are with the task. Hierarchy of
Needs/Motives Abraham Maslow proposed that humans strive to ensure that basic needs are satisfied; then, they find motivation to pursue goals that are higher on this hierarchy. Violating the Hierarchy? Do hunger strikers and mystics feel
secure enough in meeting their needs that they can do without food temporarily to pursue a higher goal? Soldiers sacrifice safety, but could they be seen as fighting for safety, both indirectly (protecting the country) and directly (defeating the people shooting at them)? Another Motivation: To Belong What do people need besides food and sex? Aristotle: social life Alfred Adler: community
In Middle English, to be wretched [wrecche] means to be without kin nearby Roy Baumeister, Mark Leary, and Abraham Maslow say we need: Belonging: being connected To Belong. to others, part of a group or family or community. Why do we have a need to belong? Emotional support to get through
crises Keeping children close to caregivers Evolutionary psychology perspective: seeking bonds with others aids survival in many ways Division of labor to allow growing
food Mutual protection in a group Cooperation in hunting and sharing food Balancing Bonding with Other Needs The need to bond with others is so strong that we can feel lost without close relationships. However, we also seem to need autonomy and a sense of personal
competence/efficacy. There a tension between me and us, but these goals can work together. Belonging builds self-esteem, and prepares us for confident autonomy. The Need to Belong Leads to: loyalty to friends, teams, groups, and families. However, the need to belong also leads to: changing our appearance to win acceptance. staying in abusive
relationships. joining gangs, nationalist groups, and violent organizations. Disrupted Bonds, New Beginnings Children repeatedly moved away from primary caretakers in childhood may have difficulty forming deep attachments in adulthood. People losing a loved one or moving away from a hometown can feel grief. Being ostracized, cut off from social contact or
excluded, can lead to real physical pain. And yet people can find resilience and relief from pain by building social connections. Social Networking = Social Connection? Is our online selfdisclosure honest, and healthy? Is social networking making us more connected, or less? Do updates and tweets build connection? Use of social networking can
become a compulsion, sacrificing face-to-face interaction and indepth conversation. Research shows: Portrayal of ones self online is often close to ones actual sense of self. Research shows: Online social networking is associated with Narcissism/self-centeredness less connection to neighbors more connection to people who share our narrow interests and viewpoints Motivation to excel in work What is our motivation to do well in our jobs? Is it just the desire for belonging, and gaining
income to meet basic needs? Humans in many cultures seem to have an achievement motivation, a desire for: accomplishment of goals, mastery of skills, meeting of standards, control of resources. What helps us satisfy our achievement motivation? Discipline: Sticking to a task despite distractions 10-year rule: Having enough experience to Develop expertise in a field Grit: passionate
persistence at a goal Hardiness: Resilience under stress
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