Monarch Butterfly Conservation

Monarch Butterfly Conservation

Monarch Butterfly Conservation Challenges and Opportunities Allison Cowie Stephen Mershon Hannah Rieden Emily Yates Todays Migration Route

cQu6Avg6Q18/s1600/butterflies.jpg Challenges The Disciplines Agriculture Deforestation Paid Environmental Services NGOs Policy Solutions/Opportunities Challenges Milkweed (Pleasants and Oberhauser 2013)

o 85-92% of monarch larvae feed on milkweed o 58% of milkweed has disappeared Habitat loss (DellAmore 2014; Brower et al. 2006) o 2012: inhabit 2.76 acres in MBBR o 2013: 1.65 acres in MBBR (44% less) o 80% of monarchs have disappeared from Midwest Geography Social geographers study the

environment in which specific human activities occur, focusing heavily on the social factors and forces involved (Social Geography 2014) Psychology Connection between humans and surroundings o The biophilia hypothesis and land use (Kellert 1993) o Environmental risk perception (Bhm and Tanner 2012) o Informational strategies (Bhm and Tanner 2012; Abrahamse and Matthies 2012) o Incentives (Barkin 2003)

Economics The branch of knowledge that deals with the production, consumption, and transfer of wealth Key Insights (Backhouse and Medema 2009) o o o Economic Value of Pollinators (Gallai et al. 2009) Willingness to Pay (Diffendorfer et al. 2014) Social Discounting (Shaw et al. 2012)

2011/02/26/am/20110226_amp001.jpg Political Science The study of rules and power and government systems Applied to Monarchs: o o o o o ESA (Bean 2009) Hybrid governance Scale: International & Local (Lopez-Hoffman 2009; Patterson 1999) NGOs (Price 1994)

Sanctuaries (Alisau 2002) http:// m/wp-content/ uploads/ 2013/03/ monarchbutterfly592x391.jpg Agriculture Glyphosate-resistant crops in Midwest (Pleasants and Oberhauser 2013) GMO crops: utilitarian with little perceived risk (Bhm and Tanner 2012; Diffendorfer et al. 2014; Barkin 2003) Economic Worth of Butterflies o Annual economic worth of more than $200 billion

(Gallai et al. 2009) files/monarch-butterfly-300.jpg Deforestation Utilitarian vs. aesthetic (Kellert 1993) Changing perceived risk of deforestation for indigenous population (Vidal et al. 2014; Barkin 2003; Lpez-Hoffman et al. 2010) Closing illegal roads to reduce logging (Ramirez et al. 2007) Government sanctioned forest reserves (Alisau 2002)

_45530672_50a83f96-573f-42fc-b0f0-196aae05a743.jpg Paid Environmental Services Ecotourism Butterfly houses Tours of the MBBR (removes economic incentive for illegal logging) Aquaculture Sustainable trout farming in conjunction with minor logging activity PES: Ecotourism Butterfly House Industry

designed to profit off of aesthetic, symbolic valuation (Boppr and Vane-Wright 2012) Incentives to Conserve (Barkin 2003) PES: Aquaculture Sustainable trout farming could be very lucrative for some areas in MBBR (Lopez-Garcia et al. 2014) Trout is a nutritious food source Surplus will sell for a good price

Removes economic incentive for illegal logging NGOs Education and Conservation Monarca Xerces Society (Price 1994) (Price 1994) (Center 2014)

Policy International goal setting & informational strategies (Lpez-Hoffman 2010; Flockhart et al. 2013) ESA (Bean 2009) Petition to label monarchs as endangered (Center 2014) Hybrid Governance and Scale

(Lopez- Hoffman 2009; Patterson 1999) Scaled out management of MBBR (Cohen and McCarthy 2014) endangered-species-act-2.jpg Solutions and Recommendations Financial incentives

International goal setting Hybrid governance monarch.jpg Scale ESA petition Preservation of habitats Education c6/e403c66657cf96ebb38a46fe4dfa5d89.jpg Bibliography Abrahamse, Wokje, and Ellen Matthies. Informational Strategies to Promote pro-Environmental Behaviour: Changing Knowledge, Awareness and Attitudes. In Environmental Psychology: An Introduction, 1st ed., 22431. Wiley-Blackwell, 2012. Alisau, Patricia. "Migration Minded." Business Mexico 12, no. 2 (February 2002): 51-53. Backhouse, Roger E., and Steven G. Medema. Retrospectives: On the Definition of Economics. Journal of Economic Perspectives 23, no. 1 (2009): 221233. Barkin, David. Alleviating Poverty Through Ecotourism: Promises and Reality in the Monarch Butterfly Reserve of Mexico. Environment, Development and Sustainability 5, no. 34 (2003): 37182 Bean, Michael J. "The Endangered Species Act." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1162, no. 1 (2009): 369-391. Bhm, Gisela, and Carmen Tanner. Environmental Risk Perception. In Environmental Psychology: An Introduction, 1st ed., 1624. Wiley-Blackwell, 2012. Boppr, Michael, and R. Vane-Wright. The Butterfly House Industry: Conservation Risks and Education Opportunities. Conservation and Society 10, no. 3 (July 2012): 285303. doi: Brower, Lincoln P., Linda S. Fink, and Peter Walford. Fueling the Fall Migration of the Monarch Butterfly. Integrative and Comparative Biology 46, no. 6 (December 2006): 112342. Center for Biological Diversity, Center for Food Safety, Xerces Society, Dr. Lincoln Brown. Petition to Protect the Monarch Butterfly (Danaus Plexippus Plexippus) Under the Endangered Species Act. Monarch ESA Petition. August 26, 2014. Cohen, Alice and James McCarthy. 2014. " Reviewing Rescaling: Strengthening the Case for Environmental Considerations " Progress in Human Geography: 1-1-23. DellAmore, Christine. Migrating Monarch Butterflies in Grave Danger, Hit New Low: Colonies in Mexico Occupy the Smallest Area Since Records Began in 1993. National Geographic. January 29, 2014. Diffendorfer, Jay E., John B. Loomis, Leslie Ries, Karen Oberhauser, Laura Lopez-Hoffman, Darius Semmens, Brice Semmens, et al. National Valuation of Monarch Butterflies Indicates an Untapped Potential for Incentive-Based Conservation. Conservation Letters 7, no. 3

(June 2014): 25362. doi:10.1111/conl.12065. Flockhart, D. T. Tyler, Jean-Baptiste Pichancourt, D. Ryan Norris, and Tara G. Martin. Unravelling the Annual Cycle in a Migratory Animal: Breeding-Season Habitat Loss Drives Population Declines of Monarch Butterflies. Journal of Animal Ecology, June 1, 2014, n/a n/ a. doi:10.1111/1365-2656.12253. Gallai, Nicola, Jean-Michel Salles, Josef Settele, and Bernard E. Vaissiere. Economic Valuation of the Vulnerability of World Agriculture Confronted with PollinatorDecline. Ecological Economics 68 (2009): 810821. Gifford, Robert. The Dragons of Inaction: Psychological Barriers That Limit Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation. American Psychologist 66, no. 4 (June 2011): 45. Kellert, Stephen R. The Biological Basis for Human Values of Nature. In The Biophilia Hypothesis, 4766. Island Press, 1993. Lopez-Garcia, Jose, Lilia L. Manzo-Delgado, and Itasema Alcantara-Ayala. 2014. "Rural Aquaculture as a Sustainable Alternative for Forest Conservation in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve, Mexico." Journal of Environmental Management 138: 43. Lpez-Hoffman, Laura, Emily D. McGovern, Robert G. Varady, and Karl W. Flessa. Conservation of Shared Environments: Learning from the United States and Mexico. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, 2009. Lpez-Hoffman, Laura, Robert G Varady, Karl W Flessa, and Patricia Balvanera. Ecosystem Services across Borders: A Framework for Transboundary Conservation Policy. Ecological Society of America 8, no. 2 (March 2010): 8491. Neuman, Scott. Monarch Butterfly Population Falls to Record Low, Mexican Scientists Say. NPR. March 14, 2013. Bibliography Oberhauser, Karen, and A. Townsend Peterson. Modeling Current and Future Potential Wintering Distributions of Eastern North American Monarch Butterflies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100, no. 24 (November 25, 2003): 1406398. Patterson, Mary Jane. "Monarch Butterflies Get Model Forest." Alternatives Journal 25, no. 2 (Spring 1999): 3. Pleasants, John M., and Karen S. Oberhauser. Milkweed Loss in Agricultural Fields because of Herbicide Use: Effect on the Monarch Butterfly Population. Insect Conservation and Diversity 6, no. 2 (March 2013): 13544. doi:10.1111/j.1752-4598.2012.00196.x. Price, Marie. "Ecopolitics and Environmental Nongovernmental Organizations in Latin America." Geographical Review 84, no. 1 (January 1994): 42-58.

Ramirez, M. Isabel, Ruth Miranda, RAUL R. ZUBIETA, and Margarita Jimenez. 2007. "Land Cover and Road Network Map for the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve in Mexico, 2003." Journal of Maps: 181-181-190. Rogers, Raymond A. and Christopher J. A. Wilkinson. "Policies of Extinction: The Life and Death of Canada's Endangered Species Legislation." Policy Studies Journal 28, no. 1 (2000): 190-205. Samson, Fred B. "PERSPECTIVES FROM THE FIELD: Three Endangered Species Acts: The Costs to Biodiversity Conservation." Environmental Practice 14, no. 2 (June 2012): 160-164. Shaw, Rebecca M., Kirk Klausmeyer, D. Richard Cameron, Jason Mackenzie, and Patrick Roehrdanz. Economic Costs of Achieving Current Conservation Goals in the Future as Climate Changes. Conservation Biology 26, no. 3 (2012): 38596. "Social Geography." : Definition of in Oxford Dictionary (American English) (US). Accessed November 11, 2014. Skibins, Jeffrey C., and Robert B. Powell. Conservation Caring: Measuring the Influence of Zoo Visitors Connection to Wildlife on pro-Conservation Behaviors. Zoo Biology 32, no. 5 (September 2013): 52840. doi:10.1002/zoo.21086. Vidal, Omar, Jose Lopez-Garcia, and Eduardo Rendon-Salinas. Trends in Deforestation and Forest Degradation after a Decade of Monitoring in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve in Mexico. Conservation Biology 28, no. 1 (February 2014): 17786. doi:10.1111/cobi.12138. Withgott, Jay. "Pollination Migrates to Top of Conservation Agenda." Bioscience 49, no. 11 (November 1999): 857-862.

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