Modern America Emerges Chapters 6 and 7 A New Industrial Age Immigrants and Urbanization Chapter 6: A New Industrial Age Expansion of Industry At the end of the 19th century, natural resources, creative ideas, and growing markets fuel an industrial boom. The Growth of Industry By 1920s, U.S. is worlds leading industrial power, due to several reasons
Wealth of natural resources Government support for business Growing urban population Black Gold Pre-European arrival, Native Americans make fuel, medicine from oil
1859, Edwin L. Drake successfully uses steam engine to drill for oil Petroleum-refining industry first makes kerosene, then gasoline Bessemer Steel Process Abundant deposits of coal, iron spur industry Bessemer process puts air into iron to remove carbon to make steel
Steel used in railroads, barbed wire, farm machines Changes construction: Brooklyn Bridge; steel-framed skyscrapers Inventions Promote Change Electricity runs numerous machines, becomes available in homes; encourages invention of appliances Inventions impact factory work, lead to industrialization
Industrialization makes jobs easier; improves standard of living By 1890 average workweek 10 hours shorter Consumers, workers regain power in market The Age of Railroads The growth and consolidation of railroads benefits the nation but also leads to corruption and required government regulation. Railroads Encourage Growth Rails make local transit reliable, westward expansion possible Government makes land grants, loans to railroads To help settle West
To develop country A National Network 1859, railroads expand west of Missouri River 1869, first transcontinental railroad completed, spans the nation Romance and Reality Railroads offer land, adventure, fresh start to many People of diverse backgrounds build railroad under harsh conditions: Central Pacific hires Chinese immigrants Union Pacific, Irish immigrants, Civil War vets
Accidents, disease disable and kill thousands every year New Towns and Markets Railroads require great supply of materials, parts Iron, coal, steel, lumber, glass industries grow to meet demand Railroads link isolated towns, promote trade,
interdependence Nationwide network of suppliers, markets develop Towns specialize, sell large quantities of their product nationally New towns grow along railroad lines Pullman
1880, George M. Pullman builds railcar factory on Illinois prairie Pullman provides for workers: housing, doctors, shops, sports field Company tightly controls residents to ensure stable work force Railroad Abuses Famers angry over perceived railroad corruption Railroads sell government lands to businesses, not settlers
Fix prices, keep farmers in debt Charge different customers different rates Interstate Commerce Act 1886, Supreme Court: states cannot set rates on interstate commerce Public outrage leads to Interstate Commerce Act of
1887 Federal government can supervise railroads Establishes Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) Panic and Consolidation Abuses, management, competition almost bankrupt many railroads Railroad problems contribute to panic of 1893, depression By mid-1894, 25% of railroads taken over by
financial companies Big Business and Labor The expansion of industry results in the growth of big business and prompts laborers to form unions to better their lives. Andrew Carnegie: New Business Strategies Carnegie searches for ways to make better products more cheaply Hires talented staff; offers company stock; promotes competition
Uses vertical integrationbuys out suppliers to control materials Through horizontal integration merges with competing companies Carnegie controls almost entire steel industry Principles of Social Darwinism
Darwins theory of biological evolution: the bestadapted survive Social Darwinism, or social evolution, based on Darwins theory Economists use Social Darwinism to justify doctrine of laissez faire Fewer Control More Growth an Consolidation Businesses try to control industry with mergers
buy out competitors Buy all others to form monopoliescontrol production, wages, prices Holding companies buy all the stock of other companies John D. Rockefeller founds Standard Oil Company, forms trust trustees run separate companies as if one
Rockefeller and the Robber Barons Rockefeller profits by paying low wages, underselling others when controls market, raises prices Critics call industrialists robber barons industrialists also become philanthropists Sherman Antitrust Act Government thinks expanding corporations stifle
free competition Sherman Antitrust Act: trust illegal if interferes with free trade Prosecuting companies difficult; government stops enforcing act Labor Unions Emerge Long hours and danger National Labor Unionfirst large-scale national organization
1868, NLU gets Congress to give 8-hour day to civil servants Local chapters reject blacks; Colored National Labor Union forms NLU focus on linking existing local unions Noble Order of the Knights of Labor open to women, blacks, unskilled Knights support 8-hour day, equal pay, arbitration Union Movements Diverge Craft Unionism Craft unions include skilled workers from one or more trades Samuel Gompers helps found American Federation of Labor (AFL) AFL uses collective bargaining for better wages, hours, conditions
AFL strikes successfully, wins higher pay, shorter workweek Industrial Unionism Industrial unions include skilled, unskilled workers in an industry Eugene V. Debs forms American Railway Union; uses strikes Socialism and the IWW Some labor activists turn to socialism: government control of business, property equal distribution of wealth Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), or Wobblies, forms 1905
Organized by radical unionists, socialists; include African Americans Industrial unions give unskilled workers dignity, solidarity Strikes Turn Violent The Great Strike of 1877 The Haymarket Affair
The Homestead Strike The Pullman Company Strike Women Organize Women barred from many unions; unite behind powerful leaders Mary Harris Jones most prominent organizer in
womens labor works for United Mine Workers leads childrens march Pauline Newmanorganizer for International Ladies Garment Workers 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist factory fire results in public outrage Chapter 7: Immigrants & Urbanization The New Immigrants
Immigration from Europe, Asia, the Caribbean, and Mexico reach a new high in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Through the Golden Door Millions of immigrants seek better lives and/or temporary jobs Europeans Chinese and Japanese
The West Indies and Mexico Life in the New Land Ellis Island Almost all immigrants travel by steamship, most in steerage Ellis Islandchief U.S. immigration station, in New York Harbor Immigrants given physical exam by doctor; seriously
ill not admitted Inspector checks documents to see if meets legal requirements 18921924, about 17 million immigrants processed at Ellis Island Angel Islandimmigrant processing station in San Francisco Bay Immigrants endure harsh questioning, long detention for admission
Cooperation for Survival Immigrants must create new life: find work, home, learn new ways Many seek people who share cultural values, religion, language ethnic communities form Friction develops between
hyphenated Americans, native-born The Rise of Nativism Melting potin U.S. people blend by abandoning native culture immigrants dont want to give up cultural identity Nativismovert favoritism toward native-born Americans Nativists believe Anglo-Saxons superior to other ethnic
groups Some object to immigrants religion: many are Catholics, Jews 1897, Congress passes literacy bill for immigrants; Cleveland vetoes 1917, similar bill passes over Wilsons veto Anti-Asian Sentiment
Nativism finds foothold in labor movement, especially in West fear Chinese immigrants who work for less Labor groups exert political pressure to restrict Asian immigration 1882, Chinese Exclusion Act bans entry to most Chinese The Gentlemens Agreement Nativist
fears extend to Japanese, most Asians in early 1900s San Francisco segregates Japanese schoolchildren Gentlemens emigration AgreementJapan limits in return, U.S. repeals segregation The Challenges of Urbanization The rapid growth of cities force people to contend with problems of housing, transportation, water, and sanitation Immigrants Settle in Cities
Industrialization leads to urbanization, or growth of cities Most immigrants settle in cities; get cheap housing, factory jobs Americanization movementassimilate people into main culture Schools, voluntary groups teach citizenship skills
English, American history, cooking, etiquette Ethnic communities provide social support Migration from Country to City Farm technology decreases need for laborers; people move to cities Many African Americans in South lose their livelihood
18901910, move to cities in North, West to escape racial violence Find segregation, discrimination in North too Competition for jobs between blacks, white immigrants causes tension Urban Problems Housing
Transportation Water Sanitation Crime
Fire The Settlement House Movement Social welfare reformers work to relieve urban poverty Social Gospel movementpreaches salvation through service to poor Settlement housescommunity centers in slums, help immigrants
Run by college-educated women, they: provide educational, cultural, social services send visiting nurses to the sick help with personal, job, financial problems Jane Addams founds Hull House with Ellen Gates Starr in 1889 Politics in the Gilded Age Local and national political corruption in the 19 th century leads to calls for reform The Emergence of Political Machines
Political machineorganized group that controls city political party Give services to voters, businesses for political, financial support After Civil War, machines gain control of major cities Machine organization: precinct captains, ward bosses, city boss The Role of the Political Boss Whether or not city boss serves as mayor, he:
controls access to city jobs, business licenses influences courts, municipal agencies]arranges building projects, community services Bosses paid by businesses, get voters loyalty, extend influence Municipal Graft and Scandal Election Fraud and Graft Machines use electoral fraud to win elections Graftillegal use of political influence for personal gain Machines take kickbacks, bribes to allow legal, illegal activities The Tweed Ring Scandal 1868 William M. Tweed, or Boss Tweed, heads
Tammany Hall in NYC Leads Tweed Ring, defrauds city of millions of dollars Cartoonist Thomas Nast helps arouse public outrage - Tweed Ring broken in 1871 Patronage Spurs Reform Patronagegovernment jobs to those who help candidate get elected Civil service (government administration) are all patronage jobs
Some appointees not qualified; some use position for personal gain Reformers press for merit system of hiring for civil service Reform Under Hayes, Garfield, and Arthur Republican Rutherford B. Hayes elected president 1876 names independents to cabinet creates commission to investigate corruption fires 2 officials; angers Stalwarts 1880, Republican independent James A. Garfield wins election
Stalwart Chester A. Arthur is vice-president Garfield gives patronage jobs to reformers; is shot and killed As president, Arthur urges Congress to pass civil service law Pendleton Civil Service Actappointments based on exam score Harrison, Cleveland, and High Tariffs
Business wants high tariffs; Democrats want low tariffs 1884, Democrat Grover Cleveland wins; cannot lower tariffs 1888, Benjamin Harrison becomes president, supports higher tariffs wins passage of McKinley Tariff Act 1892, Cleveland reelected, supports bill that lowers McKinley Tariff rejects bill that also creates income tax Wilson-Gorman Tariff becomes law 1894
1897, William McKinley becomes president, raises tariffs again
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