Mobile Computing

Mobile Computing

MOBILE COMPUTING CSE 40814/60814 Spring 2018 The Past The Present Steve Mann 1970s, pre-laptop, early computer era. Building computers he could wear. Inventor of wearable computing.

Steve Mann 1991: Started the Wearable Computing Project at MIT. 1995: Worlds first covert wearable computer camera and display concealed in ordinary eyeglasses. 1997: PhD from MIT in the field he himself had invented. Today: Works at University of Toronto.

Steve Mann What is Wearable Computing? Mann constant and always ready, unrestrictive, not monopolizing of user attention, observable and controllable by the user, attentive to the environment, useful as a communication tool, and personal. A wearable computer is a computer that is subsumed into the

personal space of the user, controlled by the user, and has both operational and interactional constancy, i.e. is always on and always accessible. Most notably, it is a device that is always with the user, and into which the user can always enter commands and execute a set of such entered commands, and in which the user can do so while walking around or doing other activities What is Wearable Computing? Seven attributes of wearable computing [Steve Mann, 1998]: 1.Unmonopolizing of the users attention. User can attend to other events.

2.Unrestrictive to the user. Allows interaction while user carries out normal functions. 3.Observable by the user. As the system is being worn, there is no reason why the wearer cannot be aware of it continuously but this contrasts with 1! Better phrasing: User can identify computational and non-computational components of their clothing. 4.Controllable by the user. User can take control at any time. 5.Attentive to the environment. Can enhance the users environment and situational

awareness. 6.Communicative to others. Can be used as a communications medium. 7.Shares the same physical and situational context as the user. Wearable Computing Output Intelligent agent (user)

Input Input Output Output (Nonwearable) computer

Intelligent agent (user) Input Wearable computer Input Output

(eg. Camera records Environment optic flow) Sensation Actuation (eg. walking) Purpose: Mediate Interactions Wearable computers will help provide a

consistent interface to computationally augmented objects in the physical world. Example: Gesture Pendant One gesture could provide an intuitive command for many devices Purpose: Aid Communication The wearable can also assist in human-to-human communication. Wearable computers can also help manage interruption in the users daily life.

Purpose: Provide Context-Sensitive Reminders Instead of simply acting as a virtual secretary, the wearable could be proactive and intimate, listening to the wearers conversations and providing reminders as appropriate Purpose: Augmented Reality Augmented reality overlays information-rich virtual

realities onto the physical world. In a sense, augmented reality is a combination of the application domains described previously. Components of a Wearable Device Head-Mounted Display (HMD) Small screen, typically covering one of your eyes. Works like an ordinary monitor, providing an image

floating in the air in front of you. Transparent vs opaque. Camera (& Sensors) Suitable placement Head, follows users gaze. Shoulder, more stable. Input Device Keyboard Canestas IR keyboard.

Arm-strapped keyboard. FrogPad Twiddler chording keyboard Mouse Twiddler, again. BrainGate Input Device Gestures Gesture Pendant (controlling smart homes) Voice recognition

Siri Multi-modal interfaces Something new? Output device Sight Visual output HMD, wristwatch... Hearing Audio/sound/speech/music Speakers, earplug/headset...

Touch Tactile feedback Taste and smell The Computer Itself Anything small, but powerful enough Smartphones Smartwatches Embedded computers Network Connection Benefits of having a network

Access to the Internet Communication Localization Wireless network connection WLAN 3G, 4G, LTE Bluetooth, ZigBee InfraRed Other Challenges Connecting all pieces

Wires (embedded into clothing?), wireless (security?), body as conduit Power supply Batteries (rechargeable; solar power) Human powered devices Body heat, 0.6 4.8W (wetsuit clothes) Breath, 0.4 2.5W (pressure mask) Blood pressure, 0.2W Limb motion, 0.3 1.5W Finger motion, 0.019W (keyboard typing) Walking, 5 8W (shoe generator)

Heat dissipation Examples Technicians Blueprints, etc. Field workers Access to information given by remote experts. Military personnel Soldiers, monitoring health, equipment, etc. Maps and terrain.

Infrastructure (sewers, roads) in urban areas. Researchers Examples Wearables for sports training Karate trainees are instrumented with

acceleration sensors. Sensor data is translated directly into sound output. Trainees can now hear, as well as see instructors movements. Trainees can also hear themselves: attempt to match own sound to sound of instructor. Martial arts training is about reproducing patterns over time, not just matching static poses; therefore, sound is a useful sensory stimuli to introduce to training.

Result: Trainees with system tended to learn faster than trainees without system. Examples Wearables for the military: Future Force Warrior (FFW) Onboard physiological/medical sensor suite

to accelerate casualty care Netted communications to maximize robustness and integration of small teams Embedded training (similar to martial arts example?) Enhanced situational awareness (heads-up display?) Synchronized firing of weapons from team.

Bone conduction technology: talking and speaking without sound or hearing Examples: Smartphone Extensions & Fitness Trackers Examples: Fitness & Health Examples: Fitness & Health

Hexoskin Clothing cs/29098/ Applications Mediated Reality Experiencing the world through the computer Allows computer to process the sensory cues before reaching the user E.g. block commercial billboards

Augmented Reality Overlaying virtual information on the real world E.g. allow architects to build virtual houses E.g. the AR Quake or AR Pacman game Both realities can enhance your senses Applications Augmented Memory Trivial example, finding your way Where did I park my car?

Camera on your body records the way Replay helps you find your way back Only key events need to be recorded Example: Intersections at a car park Applications Augmented Memory Elderly or people with poor memory Remember name and face of people Image processing can recognize a face and map it to the persons name and affiliation

How should it be presented? Applications Annotated Reality Applications - Advertising Applications - Entertainment Applications - Entertainment

PrioVR gaming Applications Aiding the Visually Disabled Some forms of low vision can not be alleviated by use of ordinary glasses User wears non-transparent glasses with integrated displays, experiences the world through a camera Computer processed video stream

Enhance contrast Adjust colors Night vision Enlarged view Applications Aiding the Visually Disabled

Fisheye lense for reading text. Remapping around blind spots. Applications Additional Vision Tricks Edgertonian eyes Freeze-frame effect, fast shutter Reading text on a tire of a speeding car Clearly seeing the rotor blades of a helicopter Counting the number of bolts holding an airplane rotor together in mid-

air Plus lots of other interesting effects Applications Additional Vision Tricks Giants eyes Enhances depth perception of distant objects Applications First Response

Applications Social software Usually designed for urban settings. Interface to groups or individuals. Safety net Heart rate, perspiration, breath rate Alert friends in case of abnormal values Friend finder Google Glass Create a closer relationship with technology.

Move away from technology that competes with real life Ex: Take pictures and record videos as you experience them. Allows you to capture the experience and remain in the moment. There when you want it, gone when you dont. Ex: Glass is not in field of vision. Remain connected to what you doing. By bringing technology closer, we can get it more out of the way.

Development Product concept of the Google [X] Moonshot Factory Google Glass August 2011, a Glass prototype Weighed 8 LBS Google co-founder

Sergey Brin, first Googler spotted wearing wearing Glass San San Francisco Francisco Charity Charity Event Event February 20, 20, 2013

2013 application application for Explorer Explorer Program Events in in LA, SF, NY

Google puts together video video Vid Link How it worked Glass Location: Sits above the line of

sight Control: Look up to activate/ Look down to activate sleep mode Wi-Fi/ Bluetoot h Location: Inside the right arm of Glass Control: Links to Wi-Fi or devices

with Bluetooth. How it worked Touchpad Speaker Location: Right arm of Glass Control: By swiping and tapping touchpad Location: Right arm of Glass just behind the ear

Control: Automatic voice commands Voice Commands Glass Feature Voice Command Explanation Take Picture

Ok Glass take a picture Hands free and quick Take Videos Ok Glass take a video In the moment recording Video Chat

Ok Glass video chat [Person] Lets others see what your seeing Send Texts Ok Glass send a text [Person]

Hand free texting like Siri Translate Ok Glass translates [Word/Phrase] Translates and recites back with proper pronunciation

Directions Ok Glass give direction to [Place] Turn by turn directions Weather Ok Glass what is the

weather Temperature, Chance of Rain and if it is currently sunny or cloudy Google Hangout Ok Glass hangout [Group Name]

Group interactions with selected friends Medical Wearables Wearable Belts Sensor Insoles Smart Clothing Headsets Patches Respiratory Biofeedback and Body Sensor Networks Sensors in Sheets

Smart Watches Sony SmartWatch, Apple iWatch, Galaxy Gear Uses NFC, Bluetooth, and RF technology for communication Pros & Cons Pro: More integration, gateway to Internet of Things (IoT) Con: Distraction on the road, battery life, smaller screens Challenges Privacy Price

Health risks Accidents Wearable Computing & the Market Growth in wearable Computing 35% growth by 2019 Smartwatch will be leading product Will rise by 41% Apple Watch market share Account for 40% market share in 2015

Fitness bands, smart eyewear, etc. 36% percent market share this year

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