MIXED METHODS RESEARCH Anneke Fitzgerald Objectives To identify the advantages and disadvantages of employing multiple research methods; To consider those factors that influence the choice of research method and sequence of the multiple methods; To understand triangulation and its variations; To examine the management and analysis of data in the context of multi method research; To consider the need for clear planning and managing a mixed methods approach Methods, Data Analyses, Data Displays & Stories
} Interviews (varying in degree of structure, Interaction-based depth,strategies & intrusiveness) Observations Structured, Semi-structured, Rich pictures, mindinterviews; maps, cause Unstructured Focus groups maps, concept maps, cognitive maps Participant-centred strategies Mapping & drawing; Storytelling; SelfSurveys/questionnaires/scales recording
journals, and other self-monitoring frameworks; Projective techniques; Process-tracing methods; techniques Simulations & games Structured analytical tools & templates Measurement strategies Think aloud protocols other process Objective tests &&assessments; Selfreport instruments; Physical tracing methods measurements Simulation models & flight simulators Text of the Story Narrative & discourse analysis Systemic networks, category systems, & tree structures Multi-way Qualitative Matrix Displays (with or without pattern coding) Diagrams, maps, models and other pictorial summaries Statistical summaries & tables Graphs & figures . ..
. . . . GOAL: Achieve Desired Balance to tell Different Types of Stories Theme/category-based Time-based Event-based Perception-based Mental model-based Role-based Cognition-based Cohort-based Group-based Intervention-based Hypothesis-based Pattern-based Impact-based Change-based Relationship-based Cross-case Generalising Data integration Hybrids of above Emergent stories . . . Hybrid devices, including dynamic systems modeling & Monte Carlo simulations
In a group of 3-4 discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using multimethods Advantages Each method can enhance the unique qualities of the other and result in vast opportunities for reciprocal advantages Multi-method research overcomes the weaknesses of individual approaches, whereby one methods strength may compensate for the other methods weakness It appreciates the complexity of a research problem Multi-method research reduces bias It might increase response rate It elicits more detailed information It enhances theory building It enhances hypothesis testing It enhances generalisations
It enhances validity It enhances accuracy of perceptions It might bridge macro and micro levels of social reality Multi-method research exposes the researcher to different ways of thinking (and behaving) Disadvantages Multi-method research requires more time in planning and analysing the data It requires more effort in planning and analysing the data It requires more sensitivity because researchers have to synthesise the techniques to achieve synergy among them Merging approaches Concurrent convergent parallel design triangulation models Sequential exploratory design
Emphasis on reflective learning and contextualised understanding Emphasis on early learning providing feedforward Sequential transformative A two-phase design (qual and quant) A dominant / less-dominant design (embedded) Quant qual action for change Sequential multiphase discrete yet linked studies Study 1 informs Study 2 informs Study 3 (mixed methods) Mixed Methods Approaches - Prototypes (a) Concurrent - Convergent parallel design ~ triangulation models Quantitative Data Collection and Analysis Qualitative Data Collection and Analysis
(b) Concurrent - Embedded design w/ differential emphasis on data types Quantitative (or Qualitative Design Compare or relate Quantitative (or Qualitative) Data Collection and Analysis Interpretation (c) Sequential Explanatory design emphasis on reflective learning &contextualised understanding Quantitative Data Collection and Analysis Interpretation Qualitative (or Quantitative) Data Collection and Analysis (before, during, or after) Qualitative Data Collection and Analysis Follow up with (d) Sequential Exploratory design ~ emphasis on early learning providing feedfoward Qualitative
Data Collection and Analysis Interpretation Quantitative Data Collection and Analysis Builds to Interpretation (e) Sequential - Transformative design ~ guided by an over-arching framework for achieving change/improvement; may have implied or explicit feedback loops or learning cycles, as in action research Transformative framework Quantitative Data Collection and Analysis Qualitative Data Collection and Analysis Follow up with Actions for change Interpretation
(f) Sequential - Multiphase design ~ discrete, self-contained yet linked studies Overall Program Objective Study 1: Qualitative Informs Study 2: Quantitative Informs Study 3: Mixed Methods [Adapted from: Creswell, J.W. & Plano Clark, V.L, (2011). Designing and conducting mixed methods research (2nd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, pp. 69-70.] Thinking of your own study, which merging approach are you taking and why? Sequence selection? The research topic What
does your discipline suggest about the order of data collection methods? The research question Is there a validated research tool that will answer your question? Timing Is there a holiday period that will impact your ability to recruit participants? Should you interview or utilise your survey first? You should probably administer the survey first and follow up with interviews to avoid biasing the responses of research participants to the survey. The context within which the research will take place Where will you be conducting the research? What else will be going on in your life at that time? The resources available Do you need money to conduct the research?
Do you need access to particular computer software packages? Triangulation Triangulation is the use of several different research techniques in the same study to confirm and verify data gathered in different ways. Triangulation adds rigour, richness and depth to the design and to the data. Types of triangulation Source triangulation Investigator triangulation Theory triangulation Methodological triangulation Recruitment triangulation Data collection and analysis triangulation Research team triangulation Interdisciplinary triangulation
Developing a Mixed Methods Mindmap [Adapted from: Cooksey, R.W. & McDonald, G. (2011). Surviving and thriving in postgraduate research. Prahran, Vic: Tilde University Press, p. 346.]. Research quality Is the research story, as a whole, convincing with respect to the arguments being made? Context Juxtapositioning with other research Contextual knowledge Researcher positioning Realization Internal coherence Analytical integrity Extensional reasoning implications to other contexts Explication Handling of unexpected outcomes Value for learning
Fertilization of new ideas Acknowledgement of limitations Presentation to audience What have other researchers done and where does this research fit in? How well does the researcher use knowledge about context to add richness and/or qualification to their research process and the resulting findings? How well has the researcher dealt with surprises and unanticipated findings? Where & how does the researcher fit within the research context? Where & how does everyone or everything else fit within the research context? What can consumers/ readers/users take away from the research as important messages or lessons? Is the research story, as an integrated whole, convincing with respect to the arguments being made?
Can others run with or build upon what has been shown by or learned from the research? Does the research, as a whole, hang together as a coherent process to permit the conclusions the researcher seeks or claims? Do the analyses lead to or support appropriate, defensible & clear conclusions given the quality of data to hand? Do the research findings have meanings or implications for other contexts? What constrains the learning value, implications and applicability of the research? Is the presentation of the research suitable for the intended audience(s) (i.e., is the researcher hitting the mark)? [adapted from Cooksey, R.W. (2008). Paradigm-independent meta-criteria for social & behavioural research. Proceedings of the 2 Postgraduate Research Conference, University of New England, Armidale, NSW, pp. 4-17.] nd Annual
MANAGING MIXED METHODS RESEARCH Some Useful Mixed Methods References Bergmann, M.M. (ed.) (2008). Advances in mixed methods research: Theories and applications. London: Sage Publications. Brocklesby, J. (1997). Becoming multimethodology literate: An assessment of the cognitive difficulties of working across paradigm. In J. Mingers & A. Gill (Eds.), Multimethodology: The theory and practice of combining management science methodologies. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, 189-216. Cooksey, RW & McDonald, G. (2011). Surviving and thriving in postgraduate research. Prahran, VIC: Tilde University Press. Creswell, J.W. (2003). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches,(2nd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Creswell, J.W. & Plano Clark, V.L. (2011) Designing and conducting mixed methods research (2nd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. International Journal of Mixed Methods in Applied Business & Policy Research, online journal, Sage International Journal of Multiple Research Approaches, e-Content Management. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, Sage. Morse, J.M. & Niehaus, L. (2009). Mixed method design: Principles and procedures. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press. Plano Clark, V.L. & Creswell, J.W. (2008). The mixed methods reader. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Tashakkori, A. & Teddlie, C. (Eds). (2003). Handbook of mixed methods in social & behavioral research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Teddlie, C. & Tashakkori, A. (2009). Foundations of mixed methods research: integrating quantitative and qualitative approaches in the social and behavioral sciences. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. MIXED METHODS Special Interest group at ANZAM Launch of the Mixed Methods SIG is on Wednesday 7 December 1400, Amora 4 (with thanks to Ray Cooksey)
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