Minerals Classification Minerals are classified by their chemical composition and internal crystal structure. There are 7 Major Mineral Groups: Silicates Native Elements Halides Carbonates Oxides Sulfates Sulfides Silicates Silicates makes up 96% of the Earths crust.
Silicon and oxygen combine to form a structure called the siliconoxygen tetrahedron (SiO4-4). This silicon-oxygen tetrahedron provides the framework of every silicate mineral. Silicates are often divided into two major groups: 1. 2. Ferromagnesian silicates contain iron or magnesium ions joined to the silicate structure. e.g. olivine, and biotite Non-ferromagnesians include feldspar and quartz Quartz
Silver Gold Native Elements Native elements are minerals that are composed of a single element. Some examples are: Gold (Au), Silver (Ag), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Diamonds (C), Graphite (C), and Platinum (Pt)
Halite Halides Halides consist of halogen elements, chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), fluorine (F), and iodine (I) forming strong ionic bonds with alkali and alkali earth elements sodium (Na), calcium (Ca) and potassium (K) Some examples include Halite (NaCl) and Flourite (CaF2).
Fluorite Dolomite Calcite Carbonates Carbonates are anionic groups of carbon and oxygen. Carbonate minerals result from bonds between these complexes and alkali earth and some transitional metals Common carbonate minerals include calcite CaCO3 , calcium carbonate, and dolomite CaMg(CO3)2 , calcium/magnesium carbonate
Carbonate minerals react when exposed to hydrochloric acid. Geologist will often carry dilute hydrochloric acid in the field to test if a mineral contains calcium carbonate. If the mineral fizzes, it contains calcium carbonate. Hematite Oxides are minerals that include one or more metal cations bonded to oxygen or hydroxyl anions. Examples of oxide minerals
include: Hematite (Fe2O3), Magnetite (Fe3O4), Corundum (Al2O3), and Ice (H2O) Ore is used to denote useful metallic minerals Oxides Sulfides Sulfides are minerals composed of one or more metal cations combined with sulfur. Many sulfides are economically important ores. Pyrite (FeS2) or fools gold, Galena (PbS), Cinnabar (HgS) an Molybdenite (MoS2) are a few commonly occurring sulfide
Pyrite Fools minerals Gold Cinnabar Sulfates Sulfates are minerals that include SO4 anionic groups combined with alkali earth and metal cations. Anhydrous (no water) and hydrous (water) are the two major groups of Sulfates.
Barite (BaSO4) is an example of a anhydrous sulfate Gypsum (CaSO4 2H2O) is an example of a sulfate. Barite Gypsum Uses of Common Minerals Minerals are a non-renewable natural resources (not replenish in enough time to be used again by humans) Industrial minerals - mined for commercial value and are not used as fuel or as a source of metals. - used in their raw form or as additives with other materials. Industrial minerals are used for construction, ceramics, cement, paints, electronics, glass, detergent, paper, plastics, filtration, and variety of other common household applications.
Copper is a native element used for electrical wiring. Gold, Diamonds, Silver, and Platinum are native elements used for jewelry. Talc is a silicate mineral used for cosmetics and cat litter. Quartz is a silicate mineral used to make glass. Graphite is a native element used for pencil lead. Halite is a halide mineral used for common table salt. Kaolin is a silicate mineral used in ceramics, coated paper, and as a medicine. Barite is a sulfate mineral used in cement or as an additive to petroleum.
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