About Science Prof Online PowerPoint Resources Science Prof Online (SPO) is a free science education website that provides fully-developed Virtual Science Classrooms, science-related PowerPoints, articles and images. The site is designed to be a helpful resource for students, educators, and anyone interested in learning about science. The SPO Virtual Classrooms offer many educational resources, including practice test questions, review questions, lecture PowerPoints, video tutorials, sample assignments and course syllabi. New materials are continually being developed, so check back frequently, or follow us on Facebook (Science Prof Online) or Twitter (ScienceProfSPO) for updates. Many SPO PowerPoints are available in a variety of formats, such as fully editable PowerPoint files, as well as uneditable versions in smaller file sizes, such as PowerPoint Shows and Portable Document Format (.pdf), for ease of printing. Images used on this resource, and on the SPO website are, wherever possible, credited and linked to their source. Any words underlined and appearing in blue are links that can be clicked on for more information. PowerPoints must be viewed in slide show mode to use the hyperlinks directly.
Several helpful links to fun and interactive learning tools are included throughout the PPT and on the Smart Links slide, near the end of each presentation. You must be in slide show mode to utilize hyperlinks and animations. This digital resource is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0: MS Tami Port, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Creator of Science Prof Online Alicia Cepaitis, MS Chief Executive Nerd Chief Creative Nerd Science Prof Online Science Prof Online Online Education Resources, Online Education Resources, LLC LLC [email protected][email protected] From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com Image: Compound microscope objectives, T. Port
Microbial Growth From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com Image: Bacterial growth phases, Michal Komorniczak Life & Metabolism All living organisms obtain ___________ (_________) from their environment. Nutrients are needed as building materials for the cell and as a source of energy to do cellular work. Nutrients are metabolized (broken down) into simpler molecules and _____ ______. Image: Glowing Colony E. coli from "Aging and
Death in E. coli" (2005) PLoS Biol 3(2); Messy baby From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com Microbial Growth Refers to increase in the ____________ of microbes (reproduction) rather than an increase in ____ of the microbe. Result of microbial growth is the ________ = aggregation of cells arising from single parent cell. The time required for growth and reproduction is known as the doubling or ___________ ______. Image: Glowing Colony E. coli from "Aging and Death in E. coli" (2005) PLoS Biol 3(2); Microbes on MacConkeys, T. Port From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com ________ _____ in Cell Count From Binary Fission Generation Cell Number Count
0 1 1 2 2 4 3 8 4 16 5 32 10 1,024 20 1,048,576 Lets watch a time lapse movie of E. coli population growth. From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com Bacterial Population Growth Curve From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com Image: Bacterial growth phases, Michal Komorniczak
Generation Time Under Optimal Conditions (at 37oC) Organism Time Generation Bacillus cereus 28 min Escherichia coli 12.5 min Staphylococcus aureus (causes many types of infections) Mycobacterium tuberculosis Treponema pallidum 18 24 hrs (agent of Tuberculosis)
(agent of Syphilis) Images: B. cereus, E. coli & S. aureus by T. Port; TB culture, Dr. George Kubica PHIL #4428, Treponema pallidum, Dr. Edwin P. Ewing, Jr., PHIL 27-30 min 30 hrs From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com Mycolic Acid, Generation Time & Disease Meet the Microbe! _______________ GRAM-POSITIVE Bactera TB Culture Q: Why is Gram-positive in quotation marks? Genus of rod-shaped, acid-fast bacteria. Mycolic acid in cell wall gives Mycobacteria many characteristics that defy medical treatment, including: increased resistance to chemical damage & dehydration allows the bacterium to grow inside macrophages, hiding it from host's immune
system Acid-fast stain M. tuberculosis doubles population every 18-24 hours, while M. leprae doubles population about every 14 days. Extremely long generation time; contributes to the chronic nature of both diseases. From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com Images: TB Culture, PHIL #4428; Acid fast stain, Mycobacteria pink, T. Port Factors Influencing Microbial Growth Nutrition Oxygen Temperature pH Osmotic Pressure This scanning electron micrograph (SEM) depicts numerous clumps of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, commonly referred to by the acronym, MRSA, by Janice Haney Carr, PHIL #10046
From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com Microbial Nutrition Organisms use a variety of nutrients for: their energy needs to build organic molecules & cellular structures. Most common nutrients contain necessary elements: ______ Oxygen Nitrogen Hydrogen These 4 elements make up 95% of dry weight of bacterium. The other 5% is composed of Calcium, Copper, Iron, Magnesium, Manganese, Phosphorus and Iron. Other elements that are needed are ___________ __________. These elements are needed in extremely small amounts, can be obtained through water intake. From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com
Image: Salmonella, Rocky Mountain Labs NIAID NIH Microbes & Oxygen Obligate ____________ Need oxygen to stay alive. Aerobic respiration = Use of O2 to break down food into useable energy. Obligate ____________ Die in presence of oxygen. It is poisonous to them. Anaerobic respiration = break down food into useable energy without the use of O2. _____________ Anaerobes Not strict aerobes or anaerobes. Many yeasts and enteric bacteriaEscherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. O2 ________________ bacteria Require oxygen levels lower that that found under normal atmospheric conditions (Helicobacter pilori found in stomach). ________________ Anaerobes Dont use oxygen, but are not killed by it. (Lactobacilli - This genus will make pickles from cucumbers and cheese from milk.) From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com
Microbes & Oxygen Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria can be identified by growing them in liquid culture: 1: Obligate aerobic bacteria gather at top of test tube to absorb maximal amount of oxygen. 2: Obligate anaerobic bacteria gather at bottom to avoid oxygen. 3: Facultative anaerobes gather mostly at the top, since aerobic respiration is most beneficial; but as lack of oxygen does not hurt them, they can be found all along the test tube. 4: Microaerophiles gather at upper part of test tube, not at top. Require O 2, but at low concentration. Image: Microbial oxygen requirements, Pixie From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com Microbes & Oxygen Using oxygen (1/2 O2) in metabolism creates toxic waste. Microbes that are able to use aerobic respiration produce enzymes to detoxify oxygen: Catalase: H2O2 --- H20 and 02 Superoxide dismutase (SOD): oxygen radical --- H20 and O2 Microbes that dont make these enzymes cannot exist in the presence of oxygen. From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com Image: Catalase enzyme structure, Vossman;
Superoxide dismutase enzyme structure, Fvasconcellos Meet the Microbe! Campylobacter jejuni Gram negative, spiral-shaped rod. Have flagella, are motile. Close relative of Helicobacter. Microaerophilic bacterium. Campylobacter infections are ____________. Commonly found in animal feces. We catch this from animals, particularly birds. Causes food poisoning. One of the most common causes of human gastroenteritis in the world. 2 4 million cases in US per year, peaking in summer months. Usually not life-threatening. Resolves within 24 hours one week. Problem with C. jejuni being antibiotic resistant, because we put antibiotics in animal feed.
From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com Image: Campylobacter jejuni by Dr. Patricia Fields, Dr. Collette Fitzgerald, PHIL Microbes & Temperature _____________ Three-dimensional shape because of the temperature sensitive hydrogen bonds. These bonds will usually break at higher temperatures, and protein become ________. Denatured proteins lose function. ____________ Also temperature sensitive. Become brittle if temperature is too low. If temperature too high, lipids will be more liquid in form. Outside membrane cannot preserve the
integrity of the cell and it will disintegrate. From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com Images: Superoxide dismutase enzyme structure, Fvasconcellos; Phospholipids & Cholesterol, Effects of Temperature on Growth 40oF 77oF Most of our plates are incubated at 37oC 95oF (98.6oF). Conversion C to F = 1.8 x C + 32 From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com Categories of Microbes Based on Temperature Range Meet the Microbe! Psychrophilic ________: Chlamydomonas nivalis
From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com Largest Image: Watermelon snow, Will Meet the Microbe! Listeria monocytogenes Gram positive, rod-shaped _________________. L. monocytogenes is widely distributed; found in soil, water, animals, birds, insects. Responsible for disease listeriosis. Rarely pathogenic in healthy adults (mild flu-like symptoms). Can be lethal in pregnant women, fetuses, newborns, elderly and immune compromised, causing meningitis or bacterimia. Transmitted from environment (contaminated food an water) to human, except in the case of pregnant woman passing on to
fetus. In vulnerable populations can have a case fatality rate of 25%. Facultative intracellular pathogen. Triggers its own phagocytosis. Listeria are very hardy. Can grow in temperatures ranging from 39F (refrigerator) to 99F. Q: What microbes have we discussed in previous lecture that are Tat the other end of the temperature spectrum? Image: Listeria monocytogenes, PHIL #2287, Cantaloupe, USDA photo by Scott Bauer. Image CDC Investigation Announcement: As of October 6, 2011, a total of 109 persons infected with outbreakassociated strains of Listeria monocytogenes have been reported from 24 states. All illnesses started on or after July 31, 2011. Twenty-one deaths have been reported:
One woman pregnant at the time of illness had a miscarriage. From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com Microbes & pH As with temperature, bacteria have minimum, optimum and maximum pH ranges. __________________ Protozoans and most bacteria have an optimum pH range of 6.5 to 7.5. pH range of human organs and tissues. Meet the Microbe! Gram-negative, microaerophilic, and acidophilic bacterium. Can thrive in the stomach and upper
small intestines and cause ulcers. ________________ Obligate acidophiles have to live in an acidic environment. Most fungi & some bacteria grow best in acid niches. Acid-tolerant Microbes will survive in an acid environment, but do not prefer that. Images: Helicobacter pylori, Y. Tsutsumi, M.D., Fujita Health University School of Medicine; pH scale, Edward Stevens Helic obac pylo ter ri However, many who are infected
do not show any symptoms. Helicobacter spp. only known microorganisms to thrive in highly acidic environment of stomach. From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com Microbes & Water: Osmotic Pressure H2O important reactant in many metabolic reactions. Most cells die in absence of water. - Some have cell walls that retain water. Q: What genus comes to mind? - Endospores and cysts can cease most metabolic activity for years. Q: What organisms make endospores? Which make cysts? Cell walls of bacteria prevent them from exploding in a hypotonic environment, but most bacteria are vulnerable in hypertonic environments. Many bacteria can be plasmolyzed by high
concentrations of solutes. Images: Water drop, Fir0002, flagstaffotos.com.au ; : Cells, full of water versus plasmolyzed, Mnolf, Q: Why can you keep honey on the cupboard for months, even years, without it spoiling? The water moves out of the bacterium and itMicrobiology dies Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com From the Virtual Glycocalyx & Osmotic Pressure Obligate ______________ Must live in a niche of high salt content. Can grow in an environment up to 30% salt. If placed within a freshwater environment, they will burst and die.
____________ Halophiles Can survive and tolerate high salt niches, but do not require them to living. Some bacteria have an additional layer outside of the cell wall called the glycocalyx. One type of glycocalyx is called a _____ ____ glycoproteins loosely associated with the cell wall. cause bacteria to adhere to solid surfaces and help prevent the cell from drying out Meet the Microbe! The slime layer of Staphylococcus epidermidis allows it to grow on the salty environment of the skin. Photo: Sweat on face of runner; Bibikoff; Staphylococcus & Mannitol salt agar, both by T. Mannitol Salt From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com
Confused? Here are links to fun resources that further explain cellular respiration: Smart Links Microbial Growth Main Page on the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom of Science Prof Online. Germs. Music by Weird Al Yankovic. Video by RevLucio. E. coli population growth time lapse video. Diffusion, Osmosis & Active Transport Main Page, Virtual Cell Biology Classroom of Science Prof Online website. Bacterial growth
The Osmosis Song music video by Duanie Films. Osmosis Demonstration with raw egg by thsharpe. Osmosis Jones movie trailer. If you havent seen this yet, you video and narration, YouTube, Dizzo95. must watch it immediately! Its awesome! (You must be in PPT slideshow view to click on links.) From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com Are microbes intimidating you? Do yourself a favor. Use the Grr Virtual Microbiology Classroom (VMC) ! The VMC is full of resources to help you succeed,
including: practice test questions review questions study guides and learning objectives You can access the VMC by going to the Science Prof Online website www.ScienceProfOnline.com Images: Escherichia coli, Giant Microbes; Prokaryotic cell, Mariana Ruiz
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