Metabolism - Pc\|Mac

Metabolism - Pc\|Mac

METABOLISM Metabolism Sum of all the chemical processes that occur in an organism.

Metabolic Pathway series of linked chemical reactions that occur in a cell and produce specific products.

Photosynthesis Autotrophs take sunlight energy and convert it to chemical energy. Occurs in chloroplasts of plant cells.

Energy is immediately captured by two molecules: ATP NADPH

ATP Adenosine Triphosphate Energy storage molecule that plant cells use to make carbohydrates.

Heterotrophs uses energy released from hydrolysis of complex molecules and store as ATP. Cycle between ATP and ADP is primary energy exchange mechanism in cells.

ATP carries energy from macromoleucles to energy requiring processes in cells. ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP, and energy is released to power cell activities.

ATP-ADP CYCLE Catabolism Breaks down molecules and forms ATP Ex-digestion of carbohydrates - begins in mouth where amylase is secreted by

salivary glands. Chyme is passed through esophagus, stomach, and small intestines where enzymes complete the hydrolysis of carbohydrates to form gluc ose and other monosaccharides.

Fat digestion occurs only in small intestine. Broken down into fatty acids and glycerol.

Protein digestion occurs in stomach and small intestine. Broken down into amino acids.

Products of digestion are absorbed by small intestines and into blood stream where molecules are transported to cells. In Cells

Glycolysis breaks down glucose into pyruvate. Pyruvate enters mitochondria and then is fed into the Krebs Cycle. In Krebs cycle, NADH and ATP are produced.

The catabolism of 1 glucose molecule can make up to 36 ATP. (40% efficient)

ANABOLISM Makes larger molecules and uses ATP. Energy released during catabolism powers the synthesis of new molecules. Anabolic processes are how cells produce molecules needed for growth and repair.

ATP energy is needed it make lipids, polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids. GLYCONEOGENESIS

An important anabolic pathway, where glucose is produced from non-carbohydrate substances.

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