Medical Terminology

Medical Terminology

Medical Terminology Word Parts Are the Key Word roots, also known as combining forms, contain basic meaning of the term. Usually indicate the body part. Suffixes usually indicate the procedure, condition, disorder or disease. Prefixes usually indicate location, time, number or status. Combining Vowels

Make the medical term easier to pronounce. The letter O is the most commonly used combining vowel When a word root is shown with a back slash and a combining vowel, such as cardi/o, this is referred to as a combining form. Rules for Combining Vowels A combining vowel is used when the suffix begins with a consonant such as

rhin/o/plasty. A combining vowel is not used when the suffix begins with a vowel such as neur/itis. A combining vowel is always used when two or more root words are joined such as gastr/ o/enter/itis. A prefix does not require a combining vowel. Suffixes Added to the end of a word to complete the term. Most medical terms have to have a suffix.

Example: tonsill/o means tonsils. A suffix is added to complete the term and tell what is happening to the tonsils. Tonsillitis is an inflammation of the tonsils Tonsillectomy is the surgical removal of the tonsils. Suffixes Meaning Pertaining To Some suffixes complete the term by changing the word into an adjective (a word that describes a noun). Cardiac means pertaining to the heart

(cardi means heart and ac means pertaining to). -ac -al -ar -ary -eal -ical -ial -ic -ine -ior -ory -ous -tic Suffixes as Noun Endings Some suffixes complete the term by changing the word into a noun. The cranium is the portion of the skull that encloses the brain (crani means skull and um is a noun ending).

-a noun ending -e noun ending -y noun ending -um singular noun ending -us singular noun ending Suffixes Meaning Abnormal Condition Some suffixes have a general meaning of abnormal condition or disease. Gastrosis means any disease of the

stomach. -ago abnormal condition, disease -esis abnormal condition, disease -ia abnormal condition, disease -osis abnormal condition, disease -ion condition -ism condition, state of Suffixes Related to Pathology

-algia means pain -dynia also means pain -itis inflammation

-malacia abnormal softening -megaly enlargement -necrosis tissue death -sclerosis hardening -stenosis narrowing Suffixes Related to Procedures -centesis -ectomy -graphy record

-gram -plasty -scopy -ostomy -otomy surgical puncture surgical removal; excision process of recording or record or picture surgical repair; plastic repair visual examination

create an opening cut into; incision amniocentesis surgical puncture of the amniotic sac appendectomy surgical removal of the appendix Arteriography process of recording a picture of an artery or arteries

Arteriogram record produced by the arteriography Rhinoplasty surgical repair of the nose GI endoscopy Visual examination of the inside of the GI tract (end

Colostomy create an opening in the colon Laparotomy cut into the abdominal wall; incision in the abdominal wall The Double RRs -rrhage and rrhagia bursting forth; abnormal excessive fluid discharge or

bleeding -rrhaphy to suture or stich -rrhea to flow; abnormal flow or discharge -rrhexis rupture Hemorrhage - bursting forth of blood (subconjunctival hemorrhage)

Myorrhaphy suture or stitching of a muscle Diarrhea dia means through and rrhea is flow; to flow through.no picture, yall know what it looks like! enterorrhexis rupture of the intestines (again,

you can imagine what this would look like.) Prefixes Prefixes are added at the beginning of the word to change the meaning of that term. The word root natal means pertaining to birth (nat=birth). These examples show how prefixes change the meaning. Prenatal before birth Perinatal surrounding or around birth.

This is the time just before or during the birth. Postnatal after birth Just a few prefixes today! EXAMPLE ab- away from (abnormal) ad- toward; in the (addiction means direction of drawn toward a drug or substance) dys- difficult;

(dysfunction;dysuria) painful eunormal; well good (euthyroid means a normal thyroid; euphoria means good feeling.)

hyper- above normal, (hypertension) increased hypo- decreased, below (hypotension) normal, deficient inter- between or among (intercostal muscles) intra- within

(intramuscular ) sub- under, below, less (subcutaneous) Supra- above or excessive (supracostal) Singular and Plural Endings Many medical terms have Greek

or Latin origins and there are unusual rules for changing some words from the singular form to the plural form. Guidelines to Unusual Plural FormsIf the terms ends in. a the plural is usually formed by adding an e vertebra to vertebrae ex or ix change to ices appendix to

appendices If the term ends in is, the plural is formed by changing is to es singular plural diagnosis diagnoses If the term ends in itis, the plural is form by changing itis to ides singular plural

arthritis arthritides If the term ends in nx, the plural is usually formed by changing the x to ges singular plural phalanx phalanges If the term ends in on, the plural is usually formed by changing the on to a singular

plural criterion ganglion criteria ganglia If the term ends in um, the plural is usually formed by changing the um to a singular plural ovum

ova If the terms end in us the plural is usually formed by changing the us to i singular plural alveolus alveoli (note the term alveolar on the diagram to the rightwhat does this mean?)

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