Dr. Michael P. Gillespie Descriptive descriptive medical terms describes the shape, size, color, function etc. of the anatomical structure. Eponyms literally putting a name upon - are used to honor someone who first discovered or described an anatomical structure, diagnosed a disease, or developed a medical instrument or procedure. Eponyms give no useful information about what the item is or where it is located.
Analyze words by dividing them into component parts. Do not simply memorize terms. Break words up into their component parts. Relate the medical terms to the structure and function of the human body. The medical terms will be easier to understand if you know their context in health and disease processes. Be aware of spelling and pronunciation problems.
Some medical terms are pronounced alike, but spelled differently (i.e. ilium and ileum). Some medical terms are similar and a mispronunciation can lean to a misunderstanding (i.e. urethra and ureter). Root the root is the foundation of the word. All medical words have one or more roots. Prefix word beginning. Usually identifies some subdivision or part of the central meaning. Suffix word ending.
Modifies the central meaning. Combining vowel usuallu an o. Links the root to a suffix or another root. Combining form combination of the root plus the combining vowel. 1. Read the meaning of the medical terms from the suffix back to the beginning of the term and across.
2. Drop the combining vowel (usually o) before a suffix beginning with a vowel: gastritis not gastroitis. 3. Keep the combining vowel between two roots: gastroenterology, not gastrentology. Itis = inflammation (tonsillitis, appendicitis, hepatitis) Osis = abnormal condition (cyanosis) Ectomy = to cut out [remove] (appendectomy, tonsillectomy) Otomy = to cut into (tracheotomy) Ostomy = to make a [mouth] (colostomy)
A / an = without / none (anemia, areflexia) Micro = small (microscopic) Macro = large (macroscopic) Mega / megaly = enlarged (megacolon, organomegaly) Scopy / scopic = to look / observe (colonoscopy) Graphy / graph = recording an image (mammography)
Gram = the image (mammogram) Ology / ologist = study / specialize in (cardiologist, rheumatology) Root Meaning Example Stomato Mouth Stomatitis Dento
Phlebitis, phlebotomy Pneumo / pulmo Lung Pneumonitis, pulmonologist Hemo / emia Blood Hematologist, anemia Combining Form Meaning abdomin/o
adip/o anter/o bol/o (throw) abdomen fat front to cast Combining Form Meaning cervic/o neck (of the body or uterus) cartilage color coccyx (tailbone) chondr/o
chrom/o coccyg/o Combining Form Meaning crani/o skull cyt/o cell dist/o far, distant dors/o back portion of the body Combining Form Meaning hist/o tissue ili/o ilium (of the pelvic bone) inguin/o groin kary/o nucleus
Combining Form Meaning later/o lumb/o medi/o nucle/o side lower back middle nucleus Combining Form Meaning pelv/i poster/o proxim/o sacr/o
pelvis back, behind nearest sacrum Combining Form sarc/o spin/o thel/o thorac/o trache/o windpipe Meaning flesh spine, backbone nipple chest trachea,
Combining Form Meaning umbilic/o navel, umbilicus ventr/o belly side of the body vertebro vertebra(e), backbone viscer/o internal organs Combining Form Meaning ana- up cata-
down epi- above hypo- below inter- between meta- change Suffix Meaning -eal
pertaining to -iac pertaining to -ior pertaining to -ism process, condition -ose pertaining to, full of -plasm formation
-somes bodies -type picture, classification as in pe as in ven as in ce as in pen
as in nit as in pple as in very as in nterest as in pt
as in nder Combining Form Meaning angi/ovessel aort/oaorta arter/o artery arteri/o artery ather/o yellowish plaque atri/oatrium Combining Form brachi/o Meaning
arm cardi/o heart cholesterol/o cholesterol coron/o heart cyan/o blue myx/o mucus Combining Form Meaning ox/o
oxygen pericardi/o pericardium phleb/o vein sphygm/o pulse steth/o chest thromb/o clot Combining Form Meaning valvul/o valve
valv/o valve vas/o vessel vascul/o vessel ven/o, ven/i vein ventricul/o ventricle COMBINING FORMS Combining Form Meaning angi/ovessel aort/oaorta arter/o artery arteri/o artery ather/o
yellowish plaque atri/oatrium COMBINING FORMS Combining Form Meaning brachi/o arm cardi/o heart cholesterol/o cholesterol coron/o
heart cyan/o blue myx/o mucus COMBINING FORMS Combining Form ox/o pericardi/o phleb/o pulmon/o rrhythm/o sphygm/o
steth/o thromb/o Meaning oxygen pericardium vein long rhythmn pulse chest clot COMBINING FORMS Combining Form
muscles -stasis -stenosis -stomy mouth) -tomy -tresia visual examination sudden contraction of stop; control; place tightening; stricture new opening (to form a process of cutting opening Combining Forms, Suffixes, Prefixes, and Terminology GLANDS Combining Form
Meaning aden/ogland adren/o adrenal glands adrenal/o adrenal glands gonad/o sex glands (ovaries, testes) pancreat/o pancreas parathyroid/o parathyroid gland Combining Forms, Suffixes, Prefixes, and Terminology
GLANDS Combining Form Meaning pituitar/o pituitary gland; hypophysis thyr/o thyroid gland thyroid/o thyroid gland Combining Forms, Suffixes, Prefixes, and Terminology RELATED FORMS Combining Form
Meaning andr/o male calc/o, calici/o calcium cortic/o cortex, outer region crin/o secrete dips/o thirst estr/o female gluc/o, glyc/o
sugar Combining Forms, Suffixes, Prefixes, and Terminology GLANDS Combining Form Meaning home/o sameness hormon/o hormone kal/I potassium (an electrolyte) lact/omilk
myx/o mucus natr/osodium (an electrolyte) Combining Forms, Suffixes, Prefixes, and Terminology GLANDS Combining Form phys/o somat/o ster/o toc/o toxic/o ur/o Meaning
growing body solid structure childbirth position urine Combining Forms, Suffixes, Prefixes, and Terminology SUFFIXES Suffix Meaning
-agon assemble, gather together -emia blood condition -in, -ine a substance -tropin stimulating the function of -uria urine condition Combining Forms, Suffixes, Prefixes, and Terminology PREFIXES Prefix Meaning
eugood, normal hyper-excessive, above hypo- deficient, below oxy- rapid, sharp, acid pan- all tetra-four tri three COMBINING FORMS Combining Form Meaning aden/o gland
cortic/o cortex, outer region COMBINING FORMS Combining Form Meaning crin/o secrete dips/o third estr/o female gluc/o, glyc/o sugar gonad/o
sex glands (ovaries, testes) home/o sameness COMBINING FORMS Combining Form Meaning hormon/o hormone kal/i potassium (an electrolyte) insulin/o insulin lact/omilk myx/o mucus natr/osodium (an electrolyte)
COMBINING FORMS Combining Form pancreat/o Meaning pancreas parathyroid/o parathyroid gland phys/ogrowing pituitar/o pituitary gland; hypophysis somat/o body ster/osolid structure or COMBINING FORMS Combining Form Meaning
thyr/o thyroid gland thyroid/o thyroid gland toc/o childbirth toxic/o position ur/o urine SUFFIXES Suffix -agon Meaning assemble, gather together -emia blood condition -in, -ine a substance -tropin
stimulating the function of -uria urine condition PREFIXES Prefix Meaning eugood, normal hyper- excessive, above hypo- deficient, below oxyrapid, sharp, acid panall tetra- four trithree COMBINING FORMS alveol/o cac/o carcin/o
xer/o -blastoma -genesis -oma -plasia -plasm -suppression -therapy anaapobrachyepimetatele- GENERAL TERMS COMBINING FORMS Combining Form calc/ocalcium calci/o Meaning calcium kyph/oposterior curvature
in thoracic region lamin/o lamina lord/ocurve lumb/oloins, lower back GENERAL TERMS COMBINING FORMS Combining Form myel/o Meaning bone marrow orth/o straight oste/o bone scoli/o crooked spondyl/o vertebra
vertebr/o vertebra GENERAL TERMS SUFFIXES Suffix Meaning -blastembryonic -clastto cell break -listhesis slipping -malacia softening -physis to grow -porosis pore, passage -tome instrument to cut
TERMS RELATED TO SPECIFIC BONES COMBINING FORMS Combining Form acetabul/o Meaning acetabulum (hip socket) calcane/o calcaneus (heal) carp/o carpals (wrist bones) clavicul/o clavicle (collar bone) cost/o ribs crani/o cranium (skull) TERMS RELATED TO SPECIFIC BONES COMBINING FORMS Combining Form
femor/o fibul/o bone) humer/o Meaning femur (thigh bones) fibula (smaller lower leg humerus (upper arm bone) ili/o ilium (upper part of pelvic bone) ischi/o ischium (part of pelvic bone) malleol/o malleolus TERMS RELATED TO SPECIFIC BONES COMBINING FORMS Combining Form
animal life SUFFIXES Suffix Meaning -genesis formation -one -pexy fixation, put in hormone
place -stomynew opening Combining Form Meaning andr/o male balan/o glans penis cry/o cold crypt/o hidden epididym/o epididymis gon/o seed hydr/o water, fluid orch/o, orchi/o testis, testicle Combining Form Meaning
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