Mayan Civilization Location: Mexico and Central American rain forest Government: citystates ruled by a king Economy: Agriculture and trade Religion: Polytheistic and built pyramids Declined for unknown reasons
Cities/Government Each city was ruled by a chief (king). Cities traded with each other, but they also went to war with one another. Mayan People
Most people were farmers, but the soil was so good, they really only had to farm 50 days out of the year. The main crop was maize corn) They
spend the rest of the year with community projects (building things to honor the chief) Scientific Advancements The Mayans had
a form of written language (hieroglyphs) that allowed them the keep records and write stories. Mayans and Math The Mayans developed a
number system and math skills early. It looks similar to tally marks. Mayan Astronomy The Mayans also studied astronomy. They watched the sun
and the planets. This allowed them to develop an accurate calendar. Religion The Mayans were polytheistic. Gods were based on nature (sun,
rain, maize, etc.) Mayan Gods Their were over 150 different gods, and religion played a huge role in Mayan life. Many
Mayan customs, especially religious ones, required human sacrifice. Recreation Mayans loved to sing, dance,
and play sports. The most popular game they played was called Pok-a-Tok. Teams of players would try to get a rubbery ball through a hoop,
but you could not use your hands or feet (only body, legs, or arms). Beauty The Mayan people preferred long, flat heads. So, when babies were born,
and their skulls were still soft, they would make them wooden vices to shape their heads. Beauty Having a large, prominent nose was also a sign of
nobility. Most hairstyles entailed a ponytail Mayan Civilization Represented by Chichen Itza Aztec Civilization Location: In arid (dry)
valley in Central Mexico Government: Ruled by an emperor Economy: Agriculture Religion: Polytheistic and built pyramids where the Gods were thirsty for human sacrifice Aztec Civilization Sacrificed
20,000 to 50,000 people each year Aztecs were engaged in much warfare Sacrificed those they conquered Aztec Civilization Represented by Tenochtitlan Farming Farming
was the major industry for the Aztecs. Corn was a staple crop. They also hunted and fished. Family Aztec men supported their families and his government (by paying taxes). Aztec women ran the house and raised the
children. Homes Aztecs has simple homes with simple furniture. Houses had beds, a low table, a kitchen, and a small shrine for the gods. Bathrooms were in separate buildings. Aztec Society
The easiest and most common way to climb through up the social ladder was to show courage in battle. One of the main reasons to go to war was to capture enemies for sacrifice.
Aztec Civilization Invented Tlachtli: A ballgame that uses a rubber ball or heads of sacrificed victims No use of hands Shoot the ball
into a hoop on the side of a wall Religion Aztecs also believed in many gods. The sun was very important to the religion and they
worshipped it. Religion They believed that one day the sun would erupt and the world would end violently. To stop this, they fed the sun human blood
(sacrifice). Aztec Written Language The Aztecs had a written language, but it was pictographs. They also had a number system for
counting. Incan Civilization Location: Andes Mountains of South America Government: Ruled by Emperor Economy: Agriculture in high altitudes
Religion: Polytheistic Incan Civilization Represented by Machu Picchu Incan Civilization Prevented water from Agriculture running off too
in high altitude in quickly. the mountains Used Terracing Farming
Terracing allowed the Incans to use more land for cultivation. It also helped to resist erosion of the land by wind and rain. Staple crops were potatoes, corn, and quinoa.
Cities Commoners People either lived on the coast or in the highlands. They lived in simple houses made of either stone bricks or of mud.
paid the taxes to support the civilization (not the nobility or the sick and elderly) Family Men were responsible
for working (usually on farms) and supporting the family. Women were responsible for taking care of the home and children. Commoners had to educate their children. Religion
The Incans worshipped many gods, shrines and objects, especially the sun. They believed in an afterworld. So, they were buried with things they thought might be useful Human Sacrifice Human sacrifice was common in religious
ceremonies. It was usually done by priests and was an act of communion with the gods. The Incans believed that the gods had sacrificed themselves in the creation of the sun and moon, so
people had to do the same thing. Medicine believed Surgeons could bore holes in the disease was head or supernatural. amputate limbs They treated when necessary. sickness with
herbs, but also with urine, and bleeding the sick. Incans Record Keeping The Incans did keep records, but it was with
knotting strings. Based on length of strings, color, types of knots, and position of strings. They did not WRITE! Incan Civilization Used
QUIPU system of knots on a cord to record important information Road System
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