Maurizio Cotta - Luca Verzichelli Il sistema politico italiano

Maurizio Cotta - Luca Verzichelli Il sistema politico italiano

The party system From the polarized pluralism to the bipolar alternation MAURIZIO COTTA - LUCA VERZICHELLI IL SISTEMA POLITICO ITALIANO CHAPTER 3 Topics of this chapter Some short remarks on the liberal era The interpretations of the First Republics party system The new party system after 1994

party organizations coalitions An overview: the four Italian party systems 1861-1918: predominant party 1919-1924: atomization 1946-1993: polarized pluralism 1994- : fractionalized but not polarized multiparty system

1861-1918: the predominant party Limited enfranchisement Notable parties Liberal Party as predominant actor 1919-1924: the atomization General enfranchisement of the male voters Coexistence between notable and mass parties 1946-1993: the interpretations Giorgio Galli: the imperfect two-party system Giovanni Sartori: the polarized multiparty

system Paolo Farneti: the centripetal multiparty system 1946-1993: some basic facts Left-right and religion-laicism as critical cleavages Extreme stability of the main political cultures Pci and Dc as typical mass parties with a large membership Strong internal competition inside the Dc

fueled by the preferential (personal) vote Earliest de-freezing since 1976 onward 1991-1993: the end of the First Republic The fall of the international Communism and the Communist Party change The criticisms against the PR (Proportional Representation) and the 1991 and 1993 electoral referenda Judicial campaign against corruption 1994: the birth of the Second Republic

March 1994: a critical parliamentary election A new mixed-member electoral system A three-pole competition After March 1994: partisan change, basic facts The demise of Christian Democrats and center parties The persistent success of Northern League and Forza Italia The change of past-Communist and pastFascist parties The Second Republics elections since

1994 The changing coalitions 1994 1996 ESTREMA SINISTRA SINISTRA 2001 Rifondazione Comunista

Progressisti UlivoRifondazione Comunista Ulivo CENTRO Patto per l'Italia Lega Nord

Italia dei ValoriDemocrazia Europea-Lista Pannella DESTRA Polo delle Libert-Polo del Buongoverno Polo delle Libert Casa delle

Libert Fiamma Tricolore Fiamma Tricolore ESTREMA DESTRA 2006 2008

2013 Sinistra Arcobaleno Unione Casa delle Libert Partito Partito DemocraticoDemocratico- Sinistra Ecologia

Italia dei Valori e Libert Udc Scelta Civica Casa delle Libert Casa delle Libert Parliamentary fractionalization, Nepp 19482013

The party system change since the Nineties A synthesis Electoral coalitions and bipolar competition High fractionalization Weakness of both larger parties Weak leaders in the Leftist coalition Recent party organizations changes From the mass party to the Catch-all party Cartel party Cadre party Personal party

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